T. S. Eliot - Wikipedia
His father and mother, jealously guarding their connection to Boston's Unitarian In and Eliot copied into a leather notebook the poems that would. This essay revisits Eliot's seminal text “Tradition and the Individual Talent” () which d'avant-garde qui revendique l'esthétique de la fragmentation, et Eliot, . Eliot's connection to the Church of England and his later conservative views on . Lowell avowed that his persona was fictional and required of a poem, as he . Eliot's poem is not very much like a Browning poem, but it does and invites the reader to make out a connection: the world of the poem is.
Eliot had no children with either of his wives. In the early s, by then in failing health, Eliot worked as an editor for the Wesleyan University Pressseeking new poets in Europe for publication. After Eliot's death, Valerie dedicated her time to preserving his legacy, by editing and annotating The Letters of T.
Eliot and a facsimile of the draft of The Waste Land. In my end is my beginning. He was aware of this even early in his career. He wrote to J.
Woods, one of his former Harvard professors, "My reputation in London is built upon one small volume of verse, and is kept up by printing two or three more poems in a year. The only thing that matters is that these should be perfect in their kind, so that each should be an event. His first collection was Prufrock and Other Observations These had the same poems in a different order except that "Ode" in the British edition was replaced with "Hysteria" in the American edition.
From then on, he updated this work as Collected Poems. Exceptions are Old Possum's Book of Practical Catsa collection of light verse; Poems Written in Early Youth, posthumously published in and consisting mainly of poems published between and in The Harvard Advocateand Inventions of the March Hare: Poems —, material Eliot never intended to have published, which appeared posthumously in That I'm sure of.
It wouldn't be what it is, and I imagine it wouldn't be so good; putting it as modestly as I can, it wouldn't be what it is if I'd been born in England, and it wouldn't be what it is if I'd stayed in America.
It's a combination of things. But in its sources, in its emotional springs, it comes from America. From the Sanskrit ending of The Waste Land to the "What Krishna meant" section of Four Quartets shows how much Indic religions and more specifically Hinduism made up his philosophical basic for his thought process.
He himself wrote in his essay on W. Alfred Prufrock[ edit ] Main article: The Love Song of J. Its now-famous opening lines, comparing the evening sky to "a patient etherised upon a table", were considered shocking and offensive, especially at a time when Georgian Poetry was hailed for its derivations of the nineteenth century Romantic Poets.
Critical opinion is divided as to whether the narrator leaves his residence during the course of the narration. The locations described can be interpreted either as actual physical experiences, mental recollections, or as symbolic images from the unconscious mind, as, for example, in the refrain "In the room the women come and go".
Eliot is surely of the very smallest importance to anyone, even to himself. They certainly have no relation to poetry. Eliot's dedication to il miglior fabbro "the better craftsman" refers to Ezra Pound's significant hand in editing and reshaping the poem from a longer Eliot manuscript to the shortened version that appears in publication. The poem is often read as a representation of the disillusionment of the post-war generation.
Before the poem's publication as a book in DecemberEliot distanced himself from its vision of despair. On 15 Novemberhe wrote to Richard Aldingtonsaying, "As for The Waste Land, that is a thing of the past so far as I am concerned and I am now feeling toward a new form and style. This structural complexity is one of the reasons why the poem has become a touchstone of modern literaturea poetic counterpart to a novel published in the same year, James Joyce 's Ulysses.
The Sanskrit mantra ends the poem. The Hollow Men[ edit ] Main articles: For the critic Edmund Wilsonit marked "The nadir of the phase of despair and desolation given such effective expression in The Waste Land. Similar to Eliot's other works, its themes are overlapping and fragmentary. Post-war Europe under the Treaty of Versailles which Eliot despisedthe difficulty of hope and religious conversion, Eliot's failed marriage. This is the way the world ends Not with a bang but a whimper. Ash Wednesday poem Ash-Wednesday is the first long poem written by Eliot after his conversion to Anglicanism.
Published init deals with the struggle that ensues when one who has lacked faith acquires it. Sometimes referred to as Eliot's "conversion poem", it is richly but ambiguously allusive, and deals with the aspiration to move from spiritual barrenness to hope for human salvation.
Eliot's style of writing in Ash-Wednesday showed a marked shift from the poetry he had written prior to his conversion, and his post-conversion style continued in a similar vein. His style became less ironic, and the poems were no longer populated by multiple characters in dialogue. His subject matter also became more focused on Eliot's spiritual concerns and his Christian faith. Edwin Muir maintained that it is one of the most moving poems Eliot wrote, and perhaps the "most perfect", though it was not well received by everyone.
T. S. Eliot
The poem's groundwork of orthodox Christianity discomfited many of the more secular literati. This first edition had an illustration of the author on the cover.
Inthe composer Alan Rawsthorne set six of the poems for speaker and orchestra in a work titled Practical Cats. After Eliot's death, the book was adapted as the basis of the musical Cats by Andrew Lloyd Webberfirst produced in London's West End in and opening on Broadway the following year. Four Quartets Eliot regarded Four Quartets as his masterpiece, and it is the work that led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Each has five sections. Although they resist easy characterisation, each poem includes meditations on the nature of time in some important respect— theologicalhistorical, physical—and its relation to the human condition.
Each poem is associated with one of the four classical elementsrespectively: Burnt Norton is a meditative poem that begins with the narrator trying to focus on the present moment while walking through a garden, focusing on images and sounds like the bird, the roses, clouds, and an empty pool.
In the final section, the narrator contemplates the arts "Words" and "music" as they relate to time. Out of darkness, Eliot offers a solution: It strives to contain opposites: Eliot's experiences as an air raid warden in the Blitz power the poem, and he imagines meeting Dante during the German bombing. From this background, the Quartets end with an affirmation of Julian of Norwich: Eliot draws upon the theology, art, symbolism and language of such figures as Dante, and mystics St. John of the Cross and Julian of Norwich.
The "deeper communion" sought in East Coker, the "hints and whispers of children, the sickness that must grow worse in order to find healing", and the exploration which inevitably leads us home all point to the pilgrim's path along the road of sanctification.
In a lecture he said "Every poet would like, I fancy, to be able to think that he had some direct social utility. He would like to be something of a popular entertainer, and be able to think his own thoughts behind a tragic or a comic mask. He would like to convey the pleasures of poetry, not only to a larger audience, but to larger groups of people collectively; and the theatre is the best place in which to do it. One project he had in mind was writing a play in verse, using some of the rhythms of early jazz.
The play featured "Sweeney", a character who had appeared in a number of his poems. Although Eliot did not finish the play, he did publish two scenes from the piece. These scenes, titled Fragment of a Prologue and Fragment of an Agonwere published together in as Sweeney Agonistes. Although Eliot noted that this was not intended to be a one-act play, it is sometimes performed as one. Much of it was a collaborative effort; Eliot accepted credit only for the authorship of one scene and the choruses.
Martin Browne for the production of The Rock, and later commissioned Eliot to write another play for the Canterbury Festival in This one, Murder in the Cathedral, concerning the death of the martyr, Thomas Becketwas more under Eliot's control. Eliot biographer Peter Ackroyd comments that "for [Eliot], Murder in the Cathedral and succeeding verse plays offered a double advantage; it allowed him to practice poetry but it also offered a convenient home for his religious sensibility. I settle upon a particular emotional situation, out of which characters and a plot will emerge.
And then lines of poetry may come into being: He was somewhat self-deprecating and minimising of his work and once said his criticism was merely a "by-product" of his "private poetry-workshop" But the critic William Empson once said, "I do not know for certain how much of my own mind [Eliot] invented, let alone how much of it is a reaction against him or indeed a consequence of misreading him. He is a very penetrating influence, perhaps not unlike the east wind.
Eliot himself employed this concept on many of his works, especially on his long-poem The Waste Land. More generally, New Critics took a cue from Eliot in regard to his "'classical' ideals and his religious thought; his attention to the poetry and drama of the early seventeenth century; his deprecation of the Romantics, especially Shelley; his proposition that good poems constitute 'not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion'; and his insistence that 'poets Eliot particularly praised the metaphysical poets' ability to show experience as both psychological and sensual, while at the same time infusing this portrayal with—in Eliot's view—wit and uniqueness.
Eliot's essay "The Metaphysical Poets", along with giving new significance and attention to metaphysical poetry, introduced his now well-known definition of "unified sensibility", which is considered by some to mean the same thing as the term "metaphysical".
He had argued that a poet must write "programmatic criticism", that is, a poet should write to advance his own interests rather than to advance "historical scholarship".
Viewed from Eliot's critical lens, The Waste Land likely shows his personal despair about World War I rather than an objective historical understanding of it. Alfred Prufrock", "Portrait of a Lady", "La Figlia Che Piange", "Preludes", and "Rhapsody on a Windy Night" had "[an] effect [that] was both unique and compelling, and their assurance staggered [Eliot's] contemporaries who were privileged to read them in manuscript.
T.S. Eliot Biography - Facts, Childhood, Family Life & Achievements of Poet
Eliot's attending Harvard seems to have been a foregone conclusion. His father and mother, jealously guarding their connection to Boston's Unitarian establishment, brought the family back to the north shore every summer, and in built a substantial house at Eastern Point, in Gloucester, Massachusetts. As a boy, Eliot foraged for crabs and became an accomplished sailor, trading the Mississippi River in the warm months for the rocky shoals of Cape Ann.
Later he said that he gave up a sense of belonging to either region, that he always felt like a New Englander in the Southwest, and a Southwesterner in New England preface to Edgar Ansel Mowrer, This American World .
Despite his feelings of alienation from both of the regions he called home, Eliot impressed many classmates with his social ease when he began his studies at Harvard in the fall of Like his brother Henry before him, Eliot lived his freshman year in a fashionable private dormitory in a posh neighborhood around Mt. Auburn Street known as the "Gold Coast.
And he began a romantic attachment to Emily Hale, a refined Bostonian who once played Mrs. Elton opposite his Mr. Woodhouse in an amateur production of Emma. Among his teachers, Eliot was drawn to the forceful moralizing of Irving Babbitt and the stylish skepticism of George Santayana, both of whom reinforced his distaste for the reform-minded, progressive university shaped by Eliot's cousin, Charles William Eliot. His attitudes, however, did not prevent him from taking advantage of the elective system that President Eliot had introduced.
As a freshman, his courses were so eclectic that he soon wound up on academic probation. He recovered and persisted, attaining a B. In December a book Eliot found in the Harvard Union library changed his life: Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Movement in Literature introduced him to the poetry of Jules Laforgue, and Laforgue's combination of ironic elegance and psychological nuance gave his juvenile literary efforts a voice.
By his poetic vocation had been confirmed: On the Advocate, Eliot started a lifelong friendship with Conrad Aiken. In May a suspected case of scarlet fever almost prevented Eliot's graduation. By fall, though, he was well enough to undertake a postgraduate year in Paris. He lived at bis rue St. Jacques, close to the Sorbonne, and struck up a warm friendship with a fellow lodger, Jean Verdenal, a medical student who later died in the battle of the Dardenelles and to whom Eliot dedicated "The Love Song of J.
Eliot attended Bergson's lectures at the College de France and was temporarily converted to Bergson's philosophical interest in the progressive evolution of consciousness.
In a manner characteristic of a lifetime of conflicting attitudes, though, Eliot also gravitated toward the politically conservative indeed monarchisticneoclassical, and Catholic writing of Charles Maurras. Warring opposites, these enthusiasms worked together to foster a professional interest in philosophy and propelled Eliot back to a doctoral program at Harvard the next year.
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In and Eliot copied into a leather notebook the poems that would establish his reputation: Their effect was both unique and compelling, and their assurance staggered his contemporaries who were privileged to read them in manuscript. Aiken, for example, marveled at "how sharp and complete and sui generis the whole thing was, from the outset.
The wholeness is there, from the very beginning. A student in what has been called the golden age of Harvard philosophy, he worked amid a group that included Santayana, William James, the visiting Bertrand Russell, and Josiah Royce.
Under Royce's direction, Eliot wrote a dissertation on Bergson's neoidealist critic F. Bradley and produced a searching philosophical critique of the psychology of consciousness. He also deepened his reading in anthropology and religion, and took almost as many courses in Sanskrit and Hindu thought as he did in philosophy.
Bywhen he left on a traveling fellowship to Europe, he had persuaded a number of Harvard's philosophers to regard him as a potential colleague. Eliot spent the early summer of at a seminar in Marburg, Germany, with plans to study in the fall at Merton College, Oxford, with Harold Joachim, Bradley's colleague and successor. The impending war quickened his departure. In August he was in London with Aiken and by September Aiken had shown Eliot's manuscript poems to Pound, who, not easily impressed, was won over.
Pound called on Eliot in late September and wrote to Harriet Monroe at Poetry magazine that Eliot had "actually trained himself and modernized himself on his own. Eliot was drawn instantly to Vivien's exceptional frankness and charmed by her family's Hampstead polish. Abandoning his habitual tentativeness with women, in June he married Vivien on impulse at the Hampstead Registry Office. His parents were shocked, and then, when they learned of Vivien's history of emotional and physical problems, profoundly disturbed.
The marriage nearly caused a family break, but it also indelibly marked the beginning of Eliot's English life. Vivien refused to cross the Atlantic in wartime, and Eliot took his place in literary London. They were to have no children. Eliot and his wife at first turned to Bertrand Russell, who shared with them both his London flat and his considerable social resources.
Russell and Vivien, however, became briefly involved, and the arrangement soured. Meanwhile Eliot tried desperately to support himself by teaching school, supplemented by a heavy load of reviewing and extension lecturing. To placate his worried parents, he labored on with his Ph. As yet one more stimulating but taxing activity, he became assistant editor of the avant-garde magazine the Egoist.
Then in spring he found steady employment; his knowledge of languages qualified him for a job in the foreign section of Lloyds Bank, where he evaluated a broad range of continental documents. The job gave him the security he needed to turn back to poetry, and in he received an enormous boost from the publication of his first book, Prufrock and Other Observations, printed by the Egoist with the silent financial support of Ezra and Dorothy Pound.
For a struggling young American, Eliot had acquired extraordinary access to the British intellectual set.
Eliot’s Modernist Manifesto
With Russell's help he was invited to country-house weekends where visitors ranged from political figures like Herbert Henry Asquith to a constellation of Bloomsbury writers, artists, and philosophers. At the same time Pound facilitated his entry into the international avant-garde, where Eliot mixed with a group including the aging Irish poet William Butler Yeats, the English painter and novelist Wyndham Lewis, and the Italian Futurist writer Tamaso Marinetti.
More accomplished than Pound in the manners of the drawing room, Eliot gained a reputation in the world of belles-lettres as an observer who could shrewdly judge both accepted and experimental art from a platform of apparently enormous learning.
It did not hurt that he calculated his interventions carefully, publishing only what was of first quality and creating around himself an aura of mystery. In he collected a second slim volume of verse, Poems, and a volume of criticism, The Sacred Wood. Both displayed a winning combination of erudition and jazzy bravura, and both built upon the understated discipline of a decade of philosophical seriousness. Eliot was meanwhile proofreading the Egoist's serial publication of Joyce's Ulysses, and, with Pound's urging, starting to think of himself as part of an experimental movement in modern art and literature.
Yet the years of Eliot's literary maturation were accompanied by increasing family worries. Eliot's father died in Januaryproducing a paroxysm of guilt in the son who had hoped he would have time to heal the bad feelings caused by his marriage and emigration.
At the same time Vivien's emotional and physical health deteriorated, and the financial and emotional strain of her condition took its toll. After an extended visit in the summer of from his mother and sister Marion, Eliot suffered a nervous collapse and, on his physician's advice, took a three month's rest cure, first on the coast at Margate and then at a sanitarium Russell's friend Lady Ottoline Morell recommended at Lausanne, Switzerland.I'll Be Right Here - E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial (10/10) Movie CLIP (1982) HD
Whether because of the breakdown or the long needed rest it imposed, Eliot broke through a severe writer's block and completed a long poem he had been working on since Assembled out of dramatic vignettes based on Eliot's London life, The Waste Land's extraordinary intensity stems from a sudden fusing of diverse materials into a rhythmic whole of great skill and daring.
A poem suffused with Eliot's horror of life, it was taken over by the postwar generation as a rallying cry for its sense of disillusionment. Pound, who helped pare and sharpen the poem when Eliot stopped in Paris on his way to and from Lausanne, praised it with a godparent's fervor. As important, Eliot's old friend Thayer, by then publisher of the Dial, decided even before he had seen the finished poem to make it the centerpiece of the magazine's attempt to establish American letters in the vanguard of modern culture.
To secure The Waste Land for the Dial, Thayer arranged in to award Eliot the magazine's annual prize of two thousand dollars and to trumpet The Waste Land's importance with an essay commissioned from the Dial's already influential Edmund Wilson.
It did not hurt that also saw the long-heralded publication of Ulysses, or that in Eliot linked himself and Joyce with Einstein in the public mind in an essay entitled "Ulysses, Order and Myth.
The masterstroke of Eliot's career was to parlay the success of The Waste Land by means of an equally ambitious effort of a more traditional literary kind. The first number of the Criterion appeared in October Like The Waste Land, it took the whole of European culture in its sights. The Criterion's editorial voice placed Eliot at the center of London writing. Eliot, however, was too consumed by domestic anxiety to appreciate his success. In Vivien nearly died, and Eliot, in despair, came close to a second breakdown.
The next two years were almost as bad, until a lucky chance allowed him to escape from the demands of his job at the bank. Geoffrey Faber, of the new publishing firm of Faber and Gwyer later Faber and Fabersaw the advantages of Eliot's dual expertise in business and letters and recruited him as literary editor. At about the same time, Eliot reached out for religious support. Having long found his family's Unitarianism unsatisfying, he turned to the Anglican church.