Ethics Questions - The Medics Portal
Traditional moral theories of rights and principles have dominated medical ethics discussions for decades. Appeals to utilitarian consequences, as well as the. , 'Love thy patient: Justice, caring, and the doctor-patient relationship,' 'dge Quarterly ofHealthcare and Bioethics 4, , E.E.: , A Taste ofMy. Justice — Are there consequences in the wider community? Secondly, an abortion may be the most loving thing to do in the case of a foetus with In a case like this is it crucial the doctor fully informs the patient of the to consider confidentiality and the effect on the doctor-patient relationship, which is built upon trust.
More recently, critics like Jacob Appel have argued for a more nuanced approach to the duty that acknowledges the need for flexibility in many cases. Control and resolution[ edit ] To ensure that appropriate ethical values are being applied within hospitals, effective hospital accreditation requires that ethical considerations are taken into account, for example with respect to physician integrity, conflict of interestresearch ethics and organ transplantation ethics.
Guidelines[ edit ] There is much documentation of the history and necessity of the Declaration of Helsinki. The first code of conduct for research including medical ethics was the Nuremberg Code.
This issue called for the creation of the Declaration. There are some stark differences between the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, including the way it is written. Nuremberg was written in a very concise manner, with a simple explanation. The Declaration of Helsinki is written with a thorough explanation in mind and including many specific commentaries. Ethics committees[ edit ] Often, simple communication is not enough to resolve a conflict, and a hospital ethics committee must convene to decide a complex matter.
These bodies are composed primarily of healthcare professionals, but may also include philosopherslay people, and clergy — indeed, in many parts of the world their presence is considered mandatory in order to provide balance. With respect to the expected composition of such bodies in the USA, Europe and Australia, the following applies. The REB should include people knowledgeable in the law and standards of practice and professional conduct.
Special memberships are advocated for handicapped or disabled concerns, if required by the protocol under review. The European Forum for Good Clinical Practice EFGCP suggests that REBs include two practicing physicians who share experience in biomedical research and are independent from the institution where the research is conducted; one lay person; one lawyer; and one paramedical professional, e.
They recommend that a quorum include both sexes from a wide age range and reflect the cultural make-up of the local community. They suggest a chairperson be preferably someone not employed or otherwise connected with the institution. Members should include a person with knowledge and experience in professional care, counseling or treatment of humans; a minister of religion or equivalent, e.
Aboriginal elder; a layman; a laywoman; a lawyer and, in the case of a hospital-based ethics committee, a nurse. The assignment of philosophers or religious clerics will reflect the importance attached by the society to the basic values involved. Medical ethics in an online world[ edit ] In increasing frequency, medical researchers are researching activities in online environments such as discussion boards and bulletin boards, and there is concern that the requirements of informed consent and privacy are not applied, although some guidelines do exist.
While researchers wish to quote from the original source in order to argue a point, this can have repercussions when the identity of the patient is not kept confidential. The quotations and other information about the site can be used to identify the patient, and researchers have reported cases where members of the site, bloggers and others have used this information as 'clues' in a game in an attempt to identify the site.
Some cultures have spiritual or magical theories about the origins and cause of disease, for example, and reconciling these beliefs with the tenets of Western medicine can be very difficult. In vice versa, a physician might be hesitant to report an incident because of personal friendship he or she may have with his or her colleague. The delivery of diagnosis online leads patients to believe that doctors in some parts of the country are at the direct service of drug companies, finding diagnosis as convenient as what drug still has patent rights on it.
The American Medical Association AMA states that medical websites have the responsibility to ensure the health care privacy of online visitors and protect patient records from being marketed and monetized into the hands of insurance companies, employers, and marketers. One such example being how political forces may control how foreign humanitarian aid can be utilized in the region it is meant to be provided in. This would be congruous in situations where political strife could lead such aid being used in favor of one group over another.
Another example of how foreign humanitarian aid can be misused in its intended community includes the possibility of dissonance forming between a foreign humanitarian aid group and the community being served.
In some cases, conflicts are hard to avoid, and doctors have a responsibility to avoid entering such situations. Research has shown that conflicts of interests are very common among both academic physicians  and physicians in practice.
Other academic institutions that have banned pharmaceutical industry-sponsored gifts and food include the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, and Yale University. Then walk through both in a balanced way, showing an appreciated of the four pillars of ethics.
Medical ethics - Wikipedia
Under current UK legislation The Abortion Act an abortion can only be carried out if certain criteria are met: In rare situations, an abortion may also be allowed to be carried out after 24 weeks If we consider patient autonomy, there is a case to say that patients should have the right to have an abortion if they wish Considering the ethical concept of beneficence, first, it is important to have the best interests of the mother at the centre of their healthcare both psychological and physical well-being.
Secondly, an abortion may be the most loving thing to do in the case of a foetus with severe deformities, as this presents issues with quality of life Non-maleficence — it is important to prevent any harm and thus considering the harm to both the mother and the foetus is important in the discussion of abortion. It is also important to consider the sanctity of life and some, based on this principle, may disagree with abortion.
These should be referenced throughout balancing of the two sides of the argument A patient refuses treatment for a life-threatening condition. Discuss the ethical issues involved. In a scenario like this there are many ethical issues involved. It is important to look at each one individually, in order to fully understand and weigh up the scenario First of all, if we consider the duty of the doctor.
However, patient autonomy is not absolute, particularly if a patient is not competent Beneficence and non-maleficence often link together and this is no exception. Not knowing about autonomy.
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You need to be clear about all of the four pillars of ethics. This is a key one that trips many people up A 14 year old patient goes to the GP and asks for the oral contraceptive pill. As usual, we start by using the four pillars of medical ethics as a framework Currently, under UK Legislation, those under the age of 16 are not able to give consent to sexual activity.
The doctor also has a duty to society to ensure the safety of their patients and ensure child protection and safety Therefore, competence is a major aspect to consider.
Establishing and assessing competence Gillick competence is also very important in a case like this to ensure sexual abuse is not taking place and for child safety Autonomy — doctors must respect the decision made by a patient.
However, this would be a last option and the doctor would need to inform the patient of their actions. Not knowing but claiming you do. If you think you are, then say that you are not sure but you think it is the case. You have to be aware of the legal ramifications You are a medical student at this School. One day in the teaching hospital, you see one of your fellow students putting medical equipment from the stock room into their bag.Kendrick Lamar - Bitch, Don't Kill My Vibe (Explicit)
When you ask them about it, they say they only want to practise their clinical skills and not to tell anyone. What would you do? The first thing you must do when answering this question is explain what the dangers of the situation are: You should also explain the risks of the situation: Acknowledge what your authority is and therefore how you should approach the situation.
You are not a doctor, nor are you a Faculty member. You therefore need to approach the student in a calm and supportive manner and not threaten them with negative outcomes.
I would encourage the student to see the danger of their actions, to come clean about what they have done and support them emotionally with any difficulties that might have led them to such a drastic act. If the student refused to act, I would then approach a Faculty member and discretely report the situation.
Not having read Good Medical Practice or having an appreciation for the standards you will need to live up to as a doctor or medical student.
Immediately confronting the student without outlining your concerns and the reasons for your actions.
Reporting the student immediately without considering for why the student is behaving erratically — are they suffering from mental stress or anxiety? Organ donation should be an opt-out system rather than an opt-in system in this country.
Love thy patient: justice, caring, and the doctor-patient relationship.
Do you agree or disagree? Before launching in the standard medical ethics answer framework, set the scene for the topic by explaining what the question is about! In DecemberNHS Wales moved from an opt-in system where consent for organ donation must be given or asked for to an opt-out system where consent must be actively removed.
Each year around 1, patients die while waiting for a transplant. After setting the scene, move into the standard ethics answer framework! An opt-out system obviously has the potential for someone who does not want to donate an organ to become an organ donor, simply because they did not opt-out.
Under the current system, families can refuse to allow organ donation. This means that families have the power to potentially over-turn the wishes of the patient, in an emergency situation where the patient cannot express their view.
On the flip side, an opt-in system treats the human body as property of the State and it could be argued goes against the idea of individual sovereignty.
Opt-out systems mean more organ donors, which means more organs to save more patient lives. It could be argued that since the organ donor is already deceased, no maleficence can be enacted upon the donor. But non-consented organ donation would harm the family. Patients on the active transplant list require on-going treatment while they wait for a new organ such as dialysis. These are expensive treatments.
It could be argued by increasing the rate of organ transplants, we could reduce the NHS deficit — or redistribute saved treatment costs to support other treatments, services or health research. Remember to finish by planting your flag. And why have you reached that conclusion? Not explaining what an opt-in versus and opt-out system is and therefore not demonstrating critical knowledge. Not demonstrating an appreciation for the pillars of medical ethics. When would it be appropriate to breach this?
Have an understanding of what patient confidentiality means and what kind of information it covers.