Determinism and Possibilism in Geography - General Knowledge Today
According to Determinism, man is a passive agent, and nature is active agent, which controls and determines the action and decision-making. For Skinner () these causes lay in the environment – more specifically in One of the main assumptions of the humanistic approach is that humans have we would need to understand what each party to the relationship chooses to do. inclined to attribute importance to free will, and adopt a soft determinism view. Determinism is the philosophical idea that all events, including moral choices, are determined Hard determinism is a position on the relationship of determinism to free will. The theory holds that the The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called nondeterminism). Determinism is often.
According to sociobiology evolution governs the behavior of a species and genetic inheritance that of each individual within it. For example Bowlby states a child has an innate i. Personality traits like extraversion or neuroticism, and the behavior associated with them, are triggered by neurological and hormonal processes within the body.
There is no need for the concept of an autonomous human being. Ultimately this view sees us as no more than biological machines and even consciousness itself is interpreted as a level of arousal in the nervous system. However, a problem with determinism is that it is inconsistent with society's ideas of responsibility and self control that form the basis of our moral and legal obligations.
Freewill One of the main assumptions of the humanistic approach is that humans have free will; not all behavior is determined.
Freewill and Determinism | Simply Psychology
Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences. For humanistic psychologists such as Maslow and Rogers freedom is not only possible but also necessary if we are to become fully functional human beings. Both see self-actualisation as a unique human need and form of motivation setting us apart from all other species. There is thus a line to be drawn between the natural and the social sciences.
To take a simple example, when two chemicals react there is no sense in imagining that they could behave in any other way than the way they do. However when two people come together they could agree, fall out, come to a compromise, start a fight and so on. The permutations are endless and in order to understand their behavior we would need to understand what each party to the relationship chooses to do.
Cognitive psychologists are also inclined to attribute importance to free will, and adopt a soft determinism view. However whereas humanists are especially interested in our choice of ends how each of us sees the road to self actualization cognitive psychologists are more inclined to focus on the choice of means. In other words for them it is the rational processing of information which goes into the making of a decision which is their main interest.
Conscious reflection on our own behavior is seen as the best way of achieving goals and learning from mistakes. Mental illnesses appear to undermine the concept of freewill. For example, individuals with OCD lose control of their thoughts and actions and people with depression lose control over their emotions. However there is also an intermediate position that goes back to the psychoanalytic psychology of Sigmund Freud. European states consequently developed strong institutions and capital-periphery linkages.
The largest pre-colonial polities arose in the Sudanian Savanna belt of West Africa because the horses and camels could transport armies over the terrain. In other areas, no centralized political organizations existed above the village level.
Colonial powers had little incentive to develop state institutions to protect their colonies against invasion, having divided up Africa at the Berlin Conference. The colonizers instead focused on exploting natural resources and exploitation colonialism.
Marcella Alsan argues the prevalence of the tsetse fly hampered early state formation in Africa. African communities were prevented from stockpiling agricultural surplus, working the land, or eating meat. Because the disease environment hindered the formation of farming communities, early African societies resembled small hunter-gatherer groups and not centralized states.
Livestock also diminished the comparative advantage of owning slaves. African societies relied on the use of rival tribesman as slave labor where the fly was prevalent, which impeded long-term societal cooperation.
Contradicting the link between the Inca state and dried potato is that other crops such as maize can also be preserved with only sun. The disease environment[ edit ] Main article: Robinson have achieved notoriety for demonstrating that diseases and terrain have helped shape tendencies towards democracy versus dictatorship, and through these economic growth and development.
An Empirical Investigation,  the authors show that the colonial disease environment shaped the tendency for Europeans to settle the territory or not, and whether they developed systems of agriculture and labor markets that were free and egalitarian versus exploitative and unequal. These choices of political and economic institutions, they argue, shaped tendencies to democracy or dictatorship over the following centuries.
Factor endowment In order to understand the impact and creation of institutions during early state formation, economic historians Stanley Engerman and Kenneth Sokoloff examined the economic development of the Americas during colonization. These endowments included the climate, soil profitability, crop potential, and even native population density. Institutions formed to take advantage of these factor endowments. Those that were most successful developed an ability to change and adapt to new circumstances over time.
For example, the development of economic institutions, such as plantationswas caused by the need for a large property and labor force to harvest sugar and tobacco, while smallholder farms thrived in areas where scale economies were absent. Though initially profitable, plantation colonies also suffered from large dependent populations over time as slaves and natives were given few rights, limiting the population available to drive future economic progress and technological development.
This is demonstrated by the plantation owning elite using their power to secure long lasting government institutions and pass legislation that lead to the persistence of inequality society. Engerman and Sokoloff found smallholder economies to be more equitable since they discouraged an elite class from forming, and distributed political power democratically to most land-owning males.
These differences in political institutions were also highly influential in the development of schools, as more equitable societies demanded an educated population to make political decisions. Over time these institutional advantages had exponential effects, as colonies with educated and free populations were better suited to take advantage of technological change during the industrial revolution, granting country wide participation into the booming free-market economy.
Other variables such as factor endowments, technologies, and the creation of property rights are just as crucial in societal development. To encourage state success an institution must be adaptable and suited to find the most economical source of growth. Supporters of environmental determinism often[ quantify ] also support Behavioral determinism.
Key proponents of this notion have included Ellen Churchill SempleEllsworth HuntingtonThomas Griffith Taylor and possibly Jared Diamondalthough his status as an environmental determinist is debated.
Other 'deterministic' theories actually seek only to highlight the importance of a particular factor in predicting the future. These theories often use the factor as a sort of guide or constraint on the future.
They need not suppose that complete knowledge of that one factor would allow us to make perfect predictions. Psychological determinism can mean that humans must act according to reason, but it can also be synonymous with some sort of Psychological egoism.
The latter is the view that humans will always act according to their perceived best interest. Linguistic determinism claims that our language determines at least limits the things we can think and say and thus know.
The Sapir—Whorf hypothesis argues that individuals experience the world based on the grammatical structures they habitually use. Economic determinism attributes primacy to economic structure over politics in the development of human history.
It is associated with the dialectical materialism of Karl Marx. Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a society's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values.
With free will[ edit ] Main article: Free will A table showing the different positions related to free will and determinism Philosophers have debated both the truth of determinism, and the truth of free will.
This creates the four possible positions in the figure. Compatibilism refers to the view that free will is, in some sense, compatible with determinism. The three incompatibilist positions, on the other hand, deny this possibility. The hard incompatibilists hold that both determinism and free will do not exist, the libertarianists that determinism does not hold, and free will might exist, and the hard determinists that determinism does hold and free will does not exist.
The standard argument against free will, according to philosopher J. Smart focuses on the implications of determinism for 'free will'. On one hand, if determinism is true, all our actions are predicted and we are assumed not to be free; on the other hand, if determinism is false, our actions are presumed to be random and as such we do not seem free because we had no part in controlling what happened. In his book, The Moral Landscapeauthor and neuroscientist Sam Harris also argues against free will.
He offers one thought experiment where a mad scientist represents determinism. In Harris' example, the mad scientist uses a machine to control all the desires, and thus all the behavior, of a particular human.
Harris believes that it is no longer as tempting, in this case, to say the victim has "free will". Harris says nothing changes if the machine controls desires at random - the victim still seems to lack free will. Harris then argues that we are also the victims of such unpredictable desires but due to the unconscious machinations of our brain, rather than those of a mad scientist. Based on this introspection, he writes "This discloses the real mystery of free will: With the soul[ edit ] Some determinists argue that materialism does not present a complete understanding of the universe, because while it can describe determinate interactions among material things, it ignores the minds or souls of conscious beings.
A number of positions can be delineated: Immaterial souls are all that exist Idealism. Immaterial souls exist and exert a non-deterministic causal influence on bodies. Traditional free-will, interactionist dualism. Immaterial souls exist, but exert no causal influence, free or determined epiphenomenalismoccasionalism Immaterial souls do not exist — there is no mind-body dichotomyand there is a Materialistic explanation for intuitions to the contrary.
With ethics and morality[ edit ] Another topic of debate is the implication that Determinism has on morality. Hard determinism a belief in determinism, and not free will is particularly criticized for seeming to make traditional moral judgments impossible. Some philosophers, however, find this an acceptable conclusion. Philosopher and incompatibilist Peter van Inwagen introduces this thesis as such: Argument that Free Will is Required for Moral Judgments The moral judgment that you shouldn't have done X implies that you should have done something else instead That you should have done something else instead implies that there was something else for you to do That there was something else for you to do implies that you could have done something else That you could have done something else implies that you have free will If you don't have free will to have done other than X we cannot make the moral judgment that you shouldn't have done X.
Determinism - Wikipedia
A compatibilist who centers around plans for the future might posit: The moral judgment that you should not have done X implies that you can do something else instead That you can do something else instead implies that there is something else for you to do That there is something else for you to do implies that you can do something else That you can do something else implies that you have free will for planning future recourse If you have free will to do other than X we can make the moral judgment that you should do other than X, and punishing you as a responsible party for having done X that you know you should not have done can help you remember to not do X in the future.
Determinism has been established by the Greek philosophers, during the 7th and 6th centuries BC by the Presocratics Heraclitus, Leucippus and mainly by the Stoics with the universal causal determinism and Aristotle. Mecca Chiesa notes that the probabilistic or selectionistic determinism of B.Determinism and Organic State Theory Ratzal Geography Optional In Hindi IAS UPSC PCS
Skinner comprised a wholly separate conception of determinism that was not mechanistic at all. Mechanistic determinism assumes that every event has an unbroken chain of prior occurrences, but a selectionistic or probabilistic model does not. The writings of Epictetus as well as Middle Platonist and early Christian thought were instrumental in this development. If thou sayest 'He knows', then it necessarily follows that [that] man is compelled to act as God knew beforehand he would act, otherwise God's knowledge would be imperfect.
The "billiard ball" hypothesis, a product of Newtonian physics, argues that once the initial conditions of the universe have been established, the rest of the history of the universe follows inevitably. If it were actually possible to have complete knowledge of physical matter and all of the laws governing that matter at any one time, then it would be theoretically possible to compute the time and place of every event that will ever occur Laplace's demon.
In this sense, the basic particles of the universe operate in the same fashion as the rolling balls on a billiard table, moving and striking each other in predictable ways to produce predictable results. Whether or not it is all-encompassing in so doing, Newtonian mechanics deals only with caused events, e.
If an object begins in a known position and is hit dead on by an object with some known velocity, then it will be pushed straight toward another predictable point. If it goes somewhere else, the Newtonians argue, one must question one's measurements of the original position of the object, the exact direction of the striking object, gravitational or other fields that were inadvertently ignored, etc.
Then, they maintain, repeated experiments and improvements in accuracy will always bring one's observations closer to the theoretically predicted results.
When dealing with situations on an ordinary human scale, Newtonian physics has been so enormously successful that it has no competition. But it fails spectacularly as velocities become some substantial fraction of the speed of light and when interactions at the atomic scale are studied. Before the discovery of quantum effects and other challenges to Newtonian physics, "uncertainty" was always a term that applied to the accuracy of human knowledge about causes and effects, and not to the causes and effects themselves.
Newtonian mechanics as well as any following physical theories are results of observations and experiments, and so they describe "how it all works" within a tolerance. However, old western scientists believed if there are any logical connections found between an observed cause and effect, there must be also some absolute natural laws behind.
Belief in perfect natural laws driving everything, instead of just describing what we should expect, led to searching for a set of universal simple laws that rule the world. This movement significantly encouraged deterministic views in western philosophy,  as well as the related theological views of Classical Pantheism.
Freewill and Determinism
Eastern tradition[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message The idea that the entire universe is a deterministic system has been articulated in both Eastern and non-Eastern religion, philosophy, and literature.