Boiling point - Wikipedia
Vapor pressure is the pressure caused by the evaporation of liquids. Three common factors that influence vapor press are surface area, intermolecular forces. The boiling point decreases as the vapour pressure increases. The boiling point of a liquid at a given pressure is the temperature at the relationship between vapor pressure and temperature very quickly;.
If you look at the surface atoms or the surface molecules, and I care about the surface molecules because those are the first ones to vaporize or-- I shouldn't jump the gun. They're the ones capable of leaving if they had enough kinetic energy. If I were to draw a distribution of the surface molecules-- let me draw a little graph here.
physical chemistry - Boiling point and vapor pressure - Chemistry Stack Exchange
So in this dimension, I have kinetic energy, and on this dimension, this is just a relative concentration. And this is just my best estimate, but it should give you the idea. So there's some average kinetic energy at some temperature, right? This is the average kinetic energy. And then the kinetic energy of all the parts, it's going to be a distribution around that, so maybe it looks something like this: You could watch the statistics videos to learn more about the normal distribution, but I think the normal distribution-- this is supposed to be a normal, so it just gets smaller and smaller as you go there.
And so at any given time, although the average is here, there's some molecules that have a very low kinetic energy. They're moving slowly or maybe they have-- well, let's just say they're moving slowly.
And at any given time, you have some molecules that have a very high kinetic energy, maybe just because of the random bumps that it gets from other molecules. It's accrued a lot of velocity or at least a lot of momentum. So the question arises, are any of these molecules fast enough?
Do they have enough kinetic energy to escape? And so there is some kinetic energy. I'll draw some threshold here, where if you have more than that amount of kinetic energy, you actually have enough to escape if you are surface atom. Now, there could be a dude down here who has a ton of kinetic energy. But in order for him to escape, he'd have to bump through all these other liquid molecules on the way out, so it's a very-- in fact, he probably won't escape.
It's the surface atoms that we care about because those are the ones that are interfacing directly with the pressure outside. So let's say this is the gas outside. It's going to be much less dense.
It doesn't have to be, but let's assume it is. These are the guys that kind of can escape into the air above it, if we assume that there's some air above it. So at any given time, there's some fraction of the particles or the molecules that can escape.
So you're next question is, hey, well, doesn't that mean that they will be vaporized or they will turn into gas? And yes, it does. So at any given time, you have some molecules that are escaping. Those molecules-- what it's called is evaporation. This isn't a foreign concept to you. If you leave water outside, it will evaporate, even though outside, hopefully, in your place, is below the boiling temperature, or the normal boiling temperature of water.
The normal boiling point is just the boiling point at atmospheric pressure.Vapor Pressure
If you just leave water out, over time, it will evaporate. What happens is some of these molecules that have unusually high kinetic energy do escape. They do escape, and if you have your pot or pan outside or, even better, outside of your house, what happens is they escape, and then the wind blows. The wind will blow and then blow these guys away.
And then a few more will escape, the wind blows and blows them all away. And a few more escape, and the wind blows and blows them all the way. So over time, you'll end up with an empty pan that once held water.
Now, the question is what happens if you have a closed system? Well, we've all done that experiment, either on purpose or inadvertently, leaving something outside and seeing that the water will evaporate. What happens in a closed system where there isn't wind to blow away? So let me just draw-- there you go. Let's say a closed system, and I have-- it doesn't have to be water, but I have some liquid down here. And there's some pressure from the air above it. Let's just say it was at atmospheric pressure.
It doesn't have to be. So there's some air and the air has some kinetic energy over here. So, of course, do the water molecules. And some of them start to evaporate. So some of the water molecules that are up here in the distribution, they have enough energy to escape, so they start hanging out with the air molecules, right? Now something interesting happens. This is the distribution of the molecules in the liquid state. Well, there's also a distribution of the kinetic energies of the molecules in the gaseous state.
Just like different things are bumping into each other and gaining and losing kinetic energy down here, the same thing is happening up here. So maybe this guy has a lot of kinetic energy, but he bumps into stuff and he loses it. And then he'll come back down. So there's some set of molecules. I'll do it in another set of blue. These are still the water-- or whatever the fluid we're talking about-- that come back from the vapor state back into the liquid state.
And so what happens is, there's always a bit of evaporation and there's always a bit of condensation because you always have this distribution of kinetic energies. At any given moment in time, out of the vapor above the liquid, some of the vapor loses its kinetic energy and then it goes back into the liquid state. Some of the surface liquid gains kinetic energy by random bumps and whatever else and goes into the vapor state.
And the vapor state will continue to happen until you get to some type of equilibrium. And when you get that equilibrium, we're at some pressure up here.
So let me see, some pressure. And the pressure is caused by these vapor particles over here, and that pressure is called the vapor pressure.
I want to make sure you understand this. So the vapor pressure is the pressure created, and this is at a given temperature for a given molecule, right? Every molecule or every type of substance will have a different vapor pressure at different temperatures, and obviously every different type of substance will also have different vapor pressures.
For a given temperature and a given molecule, it's the pressure at which you have a pressure created by the vapor molecules where you have an equilibrium. Where you have just as many things vaporizing as things going back into the liquid state.
How are vapor pressure and boiling point related?
And we learned before that the more pressure you have, the harder it is to vaporize even more, right? We learned in the phase state things that if you are at degrees at ultra-high pressure, and you were dealing with water, you would still be in the liquid state.
So the vapor creates some pressure and it'll keep happening, depending on how badly this liquid wants to evaporate. But it keeps vaporizing until the point that you have just as much-- I guess you could kind of view it as density up here, but I don't want to think-- you have just as many molecules here converting into this state as molecules here converting into this state. So just to get an intuition of what vapor pressure is or how it goes with different molecules, molecules that really want to evaporate-- and so why would a molecule want to evaporate?
It could have high kinetic energy, so this would be at a high temperature. It could have low intermolecular forces, right? It could be molecular. Obviously, the noble gases have very low molecular forces, but in general, most hydrocarbons or gasoline or methane or all of these things, they really want to evaporate because they have much lower intermolecular forces than, say, water.
Or they could just be light molecules.
You could look at the physics lectures, but kinetic energy it's a function of mass and velocity. So you could have a pretty respectable kinetic energy because you have a high mass and a low velocity. So if you have a light mass and the same kinetic energy, you're more likely to have a higher velocity.
You could watch the kinetic energy videos for that.
thermodynamics - Relationship between boiling point and pressure - Physics Stack Exchange
But something that wants to evaporate, a lot of its molecules-- let me do it in a different color. Something that wants to evaporate really bad, a lot more of its molecules will have to enter into this vapor state in order for the equilibrium to be reached.
Let me do it all in the same color. So the pressure created by its evaporated molecules is going to be higher for it to get to that equilibrium state, so it has high vapor pressure. And on the other side, if you're at a low temperature or you have strong intermolecular forces or you have a heavy molecule, then you're going to have a low vapor pressure.
List of elements by boiling point The element with the lowest boiling point is helium. Both the boiling points of rhenium and tungsten exceed K at standard pressure ; because it is difficult to measure extreme temperatures precisely without bias, both have been cited in the literature as having the higher boiling point. A given pure compound has only one normal boiling point, if any, and a compound's normal boiling point and melting point can serve as characteristic physical properties for that compound, listed in reference books.
The higher a compound's normal boiling point, the less volatile that compound is overall, and conversely, the lower a compound's normal boiling point, the more volatile that compound is overall. Some compounds decompose at higher temperatures before reaching their normal boiling point, or sometimes even their melting point.
For a stable compound, the boiling point ranges from its triple point to its critical pointdepending on the external pressure. Beyond its triple point, a compound's normal boiling point, if any, is higher than its melting point.
Beyond the critical point, a compound's liquid and vapor phases merge into one phase, which may be called a superheated gas. At any given temperature, if a compound's normal boiling point is lower, then that compound will generally exist as a gas at atmospheric external pressure. If the compound's normal boiling point is higher, then that compound can exist as a liquid or solid at that given temperature at atmospheric external pressure, and will so exist in equilibrium with its vapor if volatile if its vapors are contained.
If a compound's vapors are not contained, then some volatile compounds can eventually evaporate away in spite of their higher boiling points.