What is Ethos? A Definition for Speakers
The ancient Greek 'doctrine of Ethos' encouraged a great change in the previous methods of music instruction. “Aristotle, in his Politics, explains how the different kinds of music, imitating specific feelings one of the most profound and significant doctrines of Greek musical thought -- the doctrine of ethos. Related Ads. Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence Ethos may change in response to new ideas or forces. For example, according to the Jewish . The Greek doctrine of ethos was founded on the idea that music affects the worship of Apollo, its instrument was the lyre and its related poetic forms were the .
Nonetheless, her trustworthiness is solid based on past history of honest communication with employees. President giving the State of the Union address The President has more authority than most people on the planet based on his job title.
His reputation and trustworthiness probably depend a fair bit on your political beliefs.
A Teacher speaking to his students He probably has a record of trustworthiness, as long as he truthfully announces when assignments are due and exams are scheduled. He has authority over the year-olds, both by way of position and by age. All of them have significant ethos as they score high on several measures.
Ethos - Wikipedia
In particular, authority and reputation often are closely related. The things you did to earn the reputation often earn authority as well. On the other hand, none have perfect ethos. Indeed, this is very hard to obtain as some measures conflict. For example, your authority relative to your audience often weakens your similarity with them. Why is Ethos Critical for Speakers?
Greek Doctrine Of Ethos
They expect that you have something valuable to say, and they are eager to hear it. They are likely to be persuaded by you, provided that your speech is compelling. If you have low ethos, your audience may not be listening or paying attention. In fact, they may not even show up! Expectations are low, and a poor opening will kill you.
Your audience can be persuaded, but your speech needs to be much better to do it. Yet some musical practices continued, passed down through oral tradition. These echoes of ancient music in the European tradition are reason enough to begin our survey by examining the roles of music in ancient cultures, the links between ancient practices and those of later centuries, and the debt Western music owes to ancient Greece.
Starting with ancient music also lets us consider how we can learn about music of the past.
Greek Doctrine Of Ethos | Researchomatic
Music is sound, and sound is by its nature impermanent. What remains of the music from past eras are its historical traces, which we can divide into four main types: Using these traces, we can try to reconstruct what music of a past culture was like, recognizing that our understanding will always be partial and will be influenced by our own values and concerns.
We are most confident of success when we have all four types of evidence in abundance. But for ancient music, relatively little remains. Even for Greece, by far the best-documented ancient musical tradition, we have only a small portion of the instruments, images, writings, and music that once existed. For other cultures we have no music at all. By examining what traces survive and what we can conclude from them, we can explore how each type of evidence contributes to our understanding of music of the past.
Only historical traces of the music from past eras survive. Physical objects, such as musical instruments Visual images of musicians and instruments Writings about music and musicians Music as preserved in notation Ancient Greek music influenced Western music. The ancient Greeks left more surviving evidence than other ancient cultures. Western music has its roots in antiquity, especially in ancient Greek theoretical writings. Prehistoric Music-Making Before 36, B.
Images in Turkish cave paintings show drummers accompanying dancers and driving out game. Surviving Bronze Age metal instruments include bells, cymbals, rattles, and horns. Stone carvings show plucked stringed instruments. Pictures show music-making with instruments.
Surviving instruments include lyres and harps. Lyres see HWM Figures 1. A crossbar supported by two arms secures the strings. The number of strings varies. Harps Strings are perpendicular to the soundboard. A neck attached to the soundbox secures the strings. Other instruments from the period include lutes, pipes, drums, bells, and other percussion instruments. The ruling class left the most evidence because they could buy instruments and hire scribes.
Most uses of music in ancient Mesopotamia were similar to those of today. For rituals, including weddings and funerals In daily life, including nursery songs, work songs, and dance music For entertainment at feasts For religious ceremonies and processions Epics sung with instrumental accompaniment Written documentation from Mesopotamia Word lists from ca.
The earliest known composer is Enheduanna fl. She was a high priestess at Ur. She composed hymns songs to a god to the god and goddess of the moon. Only the texts of her hymns survive. Babylonian musicians began writing about music ca. Instructions for tuning a string instrument using a seven-note diatonic scale playable on the white keys of a piano Interval theory, with names of intervals used to create the earliest known notation see HWM Figure 1.
Not enough is known about the notation to transcribe it. The poem seems to be a hymn to the wife of the moon god, but the language Hurrian cannot be translated entirely.
Although Babylonians had a form of notation, musicians most likely performed from memory, improvised, or used notation as a recipe for reconstructing a melody. Babylonian music theory seems to have influenced later Greek theory. Other Civilizations Instruments, images, and writings about East Asian musical cultures survive, but they seem not to have influenced Greek or European music.
Doctrine of the affections
Egyptian sources include artifacts, paintings, and hieroglyphic writings in tombs, but scholars have not been able to determine whether there is any notated music. The Bible describes ancient musical practices in Israel which in turn influenced Christian musicbut ancient copies of the Bible may not have any notation. Instruments and Their Uses Evidence of Greek instruments survives in writings, archaeological remains, and hundreds of images on pots.
Aulos see HWM Figure 1. Pitch could be changed by position in the mouth, air pressure, and fingering. Images show the two pipes being fingered the same, but they could produce octaves, parallel fifths or fourths, drone, and unisons. The aulos was used in the worship of Dionysus. Dionysus was the god of fertility and wine, hence the drinking scene in HWM Figure 1.
The aulos accompanied or alternated with choruses in the great tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides that were written for Dionysian festivals. The lyre see HWM Figure 1.
The player held the instrument in front, supporting it on the hip and from a strap around the left wrist. Both hands were free to touch the strings.
The right hand strummed the strings. The fingers of the left hand touched the strings, perhaps to dampen them or to create harmonics.
The lyre was associated with Apollo, god of light, prophecy, learning, and the arts especially music and poetry. Both men and women played the lyre.