will meet the position so far as you are concerned. DR. NELTE: Yes. take, the Tribunal observed that some of the defendants required more time .. of this I contacted the Foreign Office, and I requested immediate restoration. . ment German armaments production by the Delegate for the Four. Year Plan. A brief sketch of the principal defendants in the Nuremberg Trials, their connection to It was at this meeting that the decision was made to hold the Jews responsible “I have received a letter written on the Fuehrer's orders requesting that the Jewish Hess to be a "major war criminal" and should be given a "judicial trial. The Rise and Fall of War Crimes Trials from Charles I to Bush II (Cambridge . British officer, Major Neave, served the defendants with the indictment and offered Alternatively, the defendants were entitled to request counsel of their .. continued throughout the trial, however the Tribunal met “behind the scenes” from.
Full Judgement against Hess: In that capacity, he was involved in the destruction of Czechoslovakia. During his trial, Jodl asserted that it was the Czechs who initiated it by massing troops on the German border, knowing full well that plans for the invasion of Czechoslovakia were in place at least six months prior to the invasion.
He characterized the invasion of the Soviet Union as a "preventive measure" since Soviet troops were concentrated along the German border. In regard to "crimes against humanity," Jodl was strongly implicated in promoting forced labor -- particularly against the civilian populations of Denmark, Holland, France and Belgium.
His primary defense was the "higher authority" plea. At the end of the cross-examination, Jodl stated, "It is not the task of a soldier to be the judge of his Commander in Chief.
May history or the Almighty do that. Alfred Jodl was sentenced to death by hanging. Full Judgement against Jodl: Like most other security positions, Kaltenbrunner came under the direct authority of Heinrich Himmler.
His position placed him in direct contact with the Einsatzgruppen. Amen, Ohlendorf offers the following testimony: What were the positions of Kaltenbrunner, Mueller, and Eichmann in the RSHA, and state for what periods of time each of them continued to serve in his respective capacity?
He occupied this position until the end of the war. Eichmann occupied a position in Amt IV under Mueller and worked on the Jewish problem from approximately onwards. To my knowledge, he also occupied this position until the end of the war. In what respects, if any, were the official duties of the Einsatz groups concerned with Jews and Communist commissars? On the question of Jews and Communists, the Einsatzgruppen and the commanders of the Einsatzkommandos were orally instructed before their mission.
What were their instructions with respect to the Jews and the Communist functionaries? The instructions were that in the Russian operational areas of the Einsatzgruppen the Jews, as well as the Soviet political commissars, were to be liquidated. And when you say "liquidated" do you mean "killed?
Do you know whether the mission and the agreement were also known to Kaltenbrunner? After his assumption of office Kaltenbrunner had to deal with these questions and consequently must have known details of the Einsatzgruppen which were offices of his. Under further questioning and cross-examination, Col.
Amen presented documentary and witness evidence linking Kaltenbrunner to Mauthausen, the crematoria and the extermination of Jews cf. Ernst Kaltenbrunner was sentenced to death by hanging.
Full Judgement against Kaltenbrunner: Whereas some of the defendants were relatively [difficult] cases for the tribunal because of their minimal involvement, Keitel was relatively easy because of his extensive involvement in the Nazi organization. His direct involvement in the "terror fliers" policy, which resulted in the wanton downing of British and American planes and the summary execution of the fliers and the "Night and Fog" decrees of which resulted, over the next three years, in the summary execution without court martial or trial, of military prisoners-of-war, were extremely damaging to his defense.
Discovery (law) - Wikipedia
Even while admitting his complicity in "war crimes," Keitel declared his loyalty, as a soldier, to his commander-in- chief. Wilhelm Keitel was sentenced to death by hanging. Full Judgement against Keitel: Also, as in the case of Doenitz, the most serious charges came in connection with German U-Boat activity. Unlike Doenitz, however, strong evidence was presented to sho that Raeder was also involved in the "general plan and conspiracy" to wage aggressive war in violation international law and existing treaties.
Erich Raeder was given life imprisonment. Because of failing health, he was released from Spandau Prison in and died in Full Judgement against Raeder: Rosenberg was a Baltic German who had migrated to Germany in and became a member of the Nazi Party in Throughout his career, he was obsessed with the idea that the Russian Revolution was, in large part, the work of an "international Jewish conspiracy.
Alfred Rosenberg was sentenced to death by hanging. Full Judgement against Rosenberg: He was charged with the solicitation of slave labor -- in violation of the Geneva Convention of Sauckel was sentenced to death by hanging. Full Judgement against Sauckel: Why Hjalmar Schacht was included in the list of defendants is unclear. In fact, the only charges brought against him were: His dislike of the Versailles Treaty, his belief that the German military should once again be strong and his support of the Anschluss were well known, but these are hardly "war crimes.
Likewise, Schacht had never concealed his antisemitism and his agreement that Jews should be excluded from governmental and civil service positions Hjalmar Schacht was acquitted. Full Judgement against Schacht: Immediately, the new Chancellor invited German troops to enter Austria.
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- by Ben S. Austin
- Defendants in the Major War Figures Trial
The Anschluss was under way. In that position he was instrumental in the formation of the Lublin Plan for the deportation of Jews from the Reich cf.Nazi Concentration Camps - Film shown at Nuremberg War Crimes Trials
Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: In late andSeyss-Inquart was active in the Aryanization of Jewish property and the deportation of Dutch Jews to the extermination camps in Poland. Artur Seyss-Inquart was charged on all four counts and was sentenced to death by hanging.
Full Judgement against Seyss-Inquart: You have stated a good many of the matters for which you were not responsible, and I want to make clear just what your sphere of responsibility was.
Defendants in the Major War Figures Trial
You were not only a member of the Nazi Party afterbut you held high rank in the Party, did you not? And what was the position which you held in the Party? I have already mentioned that during my pre-trial interrogations. Temporarily in I became a department head in the German Labor Front and dealt with the improvement of labor conditions in German factories. Then I was in charge of public works on the staff of Hess. I gave up both these activities in Notes of the conference I had with Hitler about this are available.
And what was your official title? Party titles had just been introduced, and they were so complicated that I cannot tell you at the moment what they were. My title was Hauptdienstleiter or something of the kind. In the directory it would appear that you were head of the "Hauptamt fur Technik.
And your rank appears to be "Oberbefehlsleiter"? Yes, that is quite possible. Which as I understand corresponds 1 roughly to a lieutenant general in the army? Well, compared to the other tasks I had it was very little. And you attended Party functions from time to time and were informed in a general way as to the Party program, were you not? Before I joined in the various Party rallies here in Nuremberg because I had to take part in them as an architect, and of course besides this I was generally present at official Party meetings or Reichstag sessions.
And you heard discussed, and were generally familiar with, the program of the Nazi Party in its broad outlines, were you not? Albert Speer was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. He was released from Spandau Prison on September 30, Speer died in Full Judgement against Speer: As Editor-in-Chief of the venomous antisemitic paper, Der Stuermer, Julius Streicher disseminated hatred and the most virulent strain of anti-Jewish sentiment to be found in all of Germany.
And, yet, his role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the judgment of the prosecutors, to include him in the indictment.
Julius Streicher was sentenced to death by hanging. Full Judgement against Streicher: Issues of the scope of relevance are taken care of before trial in motions in limine and during trial with objections. Other types of information may be protected, depending on the type of case and the status of the party.
Criminal discovery rules may differ from those discussed here.
Electronic discovery or "e-discovery" refers to discovery of information stored in electronic format often referred to as Electronically Stored Informationor ESI. Discovery is also available in criminal cases. Marylandthe prosecutor is obligated to provide to the defendant any information that is exculpatory or potentially exculpatory, without any request by the defense.
Further discovery is available if initiated by the defendant. For example, a discovery demand might be for production of the names of witnesses, witness statements, information about evidence, a request for opportunity to inspect tangible evidence, and for any reports prepared by expert witnesses who will testify at trial.
The prosecutor's ability to obtain discovery is limited by the defendant's Fifth Amendment rights, specifically the defendant's constitutional protection against self-incrimination.
Civil discovery under United States federal law Discovery in the United States is unique compared to other common law countries. In the United States, discovery is mostly performed by the litigating parties themselves, with relatively minimal judicial oversight.
According to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedurethe plaintiff must initiate a conference between the parties after the complaint was served to the defendants, to plan for the discovery process. In most federal district courtsthe formal requests for interrogatoriesrequest for admissions and request for production are exchanged between the parties and not filed with the court.
Parties, however, can file motion to compel discovery if responses are not received within the FRCP time limit. Parties can file a motion for a protective order if the discovery requests become unduly burdensome or for purpose of harassment. In federal criminal prosecutions, discovery rights originate from a number of important Supreme Court decisions and statutes, the most important of which are, Brady v.
MarylandU. Brady also applies to evidence that would mitigate the defendant's sentence if a defendant is convicted. United StatesU. As a consequence, any plea bargain or deal made by the prosecutor with a witness in exchange for testimony should be disclosed to the defense as part of the discovery process. The formal discovery process for federal criminal prosecutions is outlined in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, Rule Some deadlines are different, and litigants may only resort to the D.
Forty interrogatories, including parts and sub-parts, may be propounded by one party on any other party. There is no requirement for a "privilege log": Where above is stated "litigants may only resort to the D. After that review has been completed, appeal may be taken to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.
State law[ edit ] Many states have adopted discovery procedures based on the federal system; some closely adhere to the federal model, others not so closely.