The relationship with Britain and America | Australia Explained
British influence on the Australian culture in Australian society since the end of WWII, however, has been its drift towards American, rather than British culture. The history of Australia from – begins with the federation of the six colonies to create The Australia Act eliminated the last vestiges of British legal authority at the Federal level. . the s, but their ideas contributed to the formation of the influential post-World War II Christian Social Order Movement. Australian-Asian relations, The impact of the War, Australia in the Vietnam War its ego after being humiliated in Vietnam, and as Britain moved more towards.
Flinders was in that region early incharting the Furneaux Islands. Late that year Flinders and Bass circumnavigated Tasmania in the Norfolk, establishing that it was an island and making further discoveries.
Several other navigators, including merchantmen, filled out knowledge of the Bass Strait area; most notable was the discovery of Port Phillip in Meanwhile Flinders had returned home and in was appointed to command an expedition that would circumnavigate Australia and virtually complete the charting of the continent.
Over the next three years Flinders proved equal to this task. Above all, he left no doubt that the Australian continent was a single landmass. Appropriately, Flinders urged that the name Australia replace New Hollandand this change received official backing from It was on the northern coast, from Arnhem Land to Cape York Peninsulathat more exploration was needed.
European settlement The British government determined on settling New South Wales inand colonization began early in The motives for this move have become a matter of some controversy.
The traditional view is that Britain thereby sought to relieve the pressure upon its prisons —a pressure intensified by the loss of its American colonies, which until that time had accepted transported felons. But some historians have argued that this glossed a scheme to provide a bastion for British sea power in the eastern seas.
Some have seen a purely strategic purpose in settlement, but others have postulated an intent to use the colony as a springboard for economic exploitation of the area. It is very likely that the government had some interest in all these factors.
Whatever the deeper motivation, plans went ahead, with Lord Sydney Thomas Townshendsecretary of state for home affairs, as the guiding authority.
The First Fleet sailed on May 13,with 11 vessels, including 6 transports, aboard which were about convicts men and women. More than free persons accompanied the convicts, chiefly marines of various rank.
The fleet reached Botany Bay on January 19—20, Crisis threatened at once. The Botany Bay area had poor soil and little water, and the harbour itself was inferior. Phillip therefore sailed northward on January 21 and entered a superb harbour, Port Jacksonwhich Cook had marked but not explored. He moved the fleet there; the flag was hoisted on January 26 and the formalities of government begun on February 7. Sydney Cove, the focus of settlement, was deep within Port Jackson, on the southern side; around it was to grow the city of Sydney.
Phillip at once established an outstation at Norfolk Island. Its history was to be checkered; settlement was abandoned in and revived in to provide a jail for convicts who misbehaved in Australia. It served a new purpose from as a home for the descendants of the mutineers of the HMS Bounty, by then too numerous for Pitcairn Island. Phillip remained as governor until Decemberseeing New South Wales through its darkest days.
The land was indifferent, disease and pests abounded, few convicts proved able labourers, and Aboriginal people were often hostile. The nadir came in autumn as supplies shrank; the arrival of a second fleet brought hundreds of sickly convicts but also the means of survival.
An authoritarian society While much change proceeded throughout this period, authoritarian and hierarchical elements remained strong. The reception of convicts continued and was a major fact in social and economic life. Entrepreneurs strove hard but did not yet develop a staple industry. Farmers and graziers began to fill out an arc — miles around Sydney; this area was designated as the Nineteen Counties inand settlement beyond that limit was discouraged.
Following the discovery of Bass Strait, and in order to secure southern waterways, new settlements were established in the south. His sojourn there was unhappy, and in mid he moved to the River Derwent in southern Tasmaniaalready settled September by a group from Sydney under John Bowen.
Collins resettled the amalgamated parties at Hobart. In November William Paterson founded a settlement in northern Tasmania, the precursor of Launceston. These settlements united in ; they were still under supervision from Sydney, although only nominally from Among penal outstations settled from Sydney were those at Newcastle and Moreton Baythe forerunner of Brisbane. Britain extended its possession over the whole of the continent in the s, again fearing French or even American intervention.
His instructions stated that Britain now claimed all Australia. As remarked above, the constitutional structure was authoritarian. The governors were all service officers. There were no representative institutions, but Acts introduced in and provided for executive and legislative councils, with the major officers of government serving in both and an equal number of private individuals, chosen by nomination, in the latter.
More significant at this stage was the articulation of a judicial systemespecially the establishment of supreme courts New South Wales, ; Tasmania, ; normal trial by jury did not obtain. Within this rigid structure, sociopolitical factions developed. Most important in the early years was the assertion of the New South Wales Corpsstationed at Sydney from Some officers of the corps sought power and profit with an avidity that led to clash after clash with the early governors.
This culminated in the events of January 26,when John Macarthura former officer of the corps, led an uprising known as the Rum Rebellion that deposed Governor William Bligh served —08earlier famous for the Bounty mutiny.
After an official inquiry —21 by John Thomas Bigge, the government encouraged the migration of men of some standing and wealth to both New South Wales and Tasmania. Such men received substantial grants of land and appeared to be the natural leaders of social and economic development.
The Emancipists continued to be strong, however, especially through the leadership of William Charles Wentworth himself the son of a convict womanwhose newspaper, the Australian foundedwas the spearhead of opposition, especially to Governor Ralph Darling served — In Tasmania factions never formed so clearly, but there, also, the press led criticism of the government. By about 58, convictsincluding almost 50, men, had come to Australia the rate increasing rapidly after Many were urban thieves.
There were a few political prisoners, while a substantial proportion of the Irish convicts at least a third of the total had become offenders through sociopolitical unrest. Assignment to the new settlers of the s, however, often had an element of slavery, and many convicts must have suffered grief and despair in their exile.
Most convicts committed some further misdeeds, although only about one-tenth were charged with serious offenses. Those found guilty went to secondary penal stations, the sometimes exaggerated horror spots of Australian history— Macquarie HarbourNewcastleand Moreton Bay in this period and, later, Norfolk Island and Port Arthur. The convicts gave Australia a Lumpenproletariat; but success stories were common enough, and many convicts led decent lives. There were only a few large-scale protests; the most remarkable was the Castle Hill Rising among Irish convicts outside Sydney in March Altogether, the impact of such a large convict population was less grim and ugly than might be expected.
Ruins of the Port Arthur penal colony, Tasmania, Austl. Wealth was won by supplying government stores with food and grain or by controlling internal trade—or both. The officers of the New South Wales Corps were skilled in filling these roles, although civil officers, private settlers, former convicts, and even serving convicts all had their own means of doing business, and the amount of petty commercial activity was large. Farming was pursued on a widely ranging scale. John Macarthur was the most notable of those who early believed that wool growing would be a major economic resource; he himself received a substantial land grant in to pursue this hope, and he persuaded Bigge of its validity.
By these hopes were still some distance from fulfillment: The s saw that process quickening, with relatively greater strength in Tasmania. Sealing and whaling also proved profitable, although the richest seal fields especially in Bass Strait were soon thinned; and not until the s did colonists have the wealth to engage seriously in whaling, although British and Americans early used Australian ports for this purpose.
Maritime adventure led early colonists to make contact with Pacific islands, most importantly Tahiti. The period saw some notable exploration by land.
From early days in Sydney settlers sought a way over the mountains, some 50— miles west. The task was accomplished in ; the young Wentworth led the party. A surveyor, George William Evansfollowed their route to Bathurst founded and reported rich pastoral country. While catering to the European appetite for natural history, they sometimes achieved literary grace.
Pictorial illustrations of the new land, some by convicts, also dated from the earliest years. Wentworth showed skill as a versifier, too, especially in his Australasia Newspapers were founded as early asand they contributed to cultural as well as political history. The impact was most evident in politics and the economy, but culture was no less affected.
Not until did the European population pass 50,; in it was about , and by it had reached 1, A British naval captain, James Stirlingexamined the Swan River in and interested English capitalist-adventurers in colonization. Two years later he returned to the Swan as governor of the new colony of Western Australia.
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The Colonial Office discouraged schemes for massive proprietorial grants; still the idea persisted, with Thomas Peel—kinsman of the future prime minister Sir Robert Peel—investing heavily. But colonization was grim work in a hot, dry land, with the government reluctant to expend resources. Yet enthusiasm quickly generated around proposals to establish a colony in South Australiainspired by the British social reformer Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Both of these elements backed nascent South Australia. The first colonists arrived inand Adelaide was settled the following year. The northern and southern portions of New South Wales formed separate colonies. Settlement into the Port Phillip district in the south proceeded very quickly, starting from the mids, with colonists coming both from north of the Murray and from Tasmania.
The settlement of Melbourne began inand the place boomed immediately.
Throughout the s there were calls for constitutional independence; this was granted inat which time the Port Phillip District took the name Victoria. The Moreton Bay District in the north was never quite so buoyant, and the creation of Queensland had to wait until Short-lived settlements included Port Essington —49 and Gladstone Politics All the colonies except Western Australia gained responsible self-government. New South Wales led the way when an imperial act of created a two-thirds elective legislature.
Queensland followed after its separation from New South Wales. All had bicameral legislatures, with ministers responsible to the lower houses, which byexcept in Tasmania, were elected on a near-democratic basis all adult non-Aboriginal men were eligible to vote.
In Victoria and South Australia the secret ballot was introduced in see Australian ballot. While the imperial power thus responded to colonial cries for self-rule, on the way there were some tense moments.
From the outset of the period, the imperial government fostered a freer market in land and labour throughout the colonies, not merely in South Australia. Thus, grants of land ceased inreplaced by sale. Attempts to create a pastoral-lease system caused much friction, with colonists generally hostile to any demand for payment. In New South Wales innew regulations even prompted talk of rebellion. With regard to labour, colonists agreed with imperial encouragement of free migration, but friction arose over the convicts.
British opinion in the s became increasingly critical of the assignment of convicts to private employers as smacking of slavery; it was abolished inand with it transportation of convicts to the mainland virtually ceased, although increased numbers were sent to Tasmania.
The British government ended transportation to eastern Australia in Altogether someconvicts were sent to eastern Australia and nearly 10, to Western Australia. In the early s the most dramatic political problem arose from the gold rushes.
Diggers miners resented tax imposition and the absence of fully representative institutions. Discontent reached a peak at BallaratVictoria, and in Decemberat the Eureka Stockadetroops and diggers clashed, and some were killed.
Common suspicion of the imperial authority modified, but did not obliterate, internal tension among the colonists. Divisions of ideology and interest were quite strong, especially in Sydney, where a populist radicalism criticized men of wealth, notably the big landholders. The coming of self-government marked a leftward although far from revolutionary shift in the internal power balance.
The economy The three decades leading to saw booms of the two bonanzas of Australian economic growth—wool and minerals. Only then did men, money, markets, and land availability interact to confirm that Australia was remarkably suited for growing fine wool. Occupation of Port Phillip was the most vital part of a surge that carried sheep raising miles and farther in an arc from beyond Adelaide in the south, north, and east to beyond Brisbane.
Although it suffered some depression in the early s, the industry kept growing, and the whole eastern mainland benefited as a result. The first significant mineral discovery was that of copper in South Australia and The discovery had the effect, to be repeated time and again, of suddenly redeeming an Australian region from stagnation. Much more remarkable, however, were a publicized series of gold discoveries made from onward, first in east-central New South Wales and then throughout Victoria.
As a result Australia became a land of golden attraction. The Victorian economy benefited from the flood of men and money, although the smaller colonies suffered. The Eureka Stockade incident not withstanding, the diggers proved more rowdy than revolutionary. Culture Both governments and citizens paid considerable heed to improvement of soul and mind.
From the mids, generous aid helped all Christian churches to expand. The Church of England had the highest nominal allegiancebut in the eastern mainland colonies Roman Catholicism was notably strong; Methodism had vigorous advocates throughout; Congregationalism and other forms of dissent dominated in South Australia; and Presbyterianism had its chief strength in Victoria. Most churches attended to education, especially the provision of superior schools, while the state struggled to provide a primary system.
The Universities of Sydney and Melbourne were founded in andrespectively. Architects created much beauty in early Australia. Artists were active; drama and music developed in all towns. At the same time, a distinctive Australian literature began to develop. Various forms of science had their investigators, but land exploration remained the richest field of discovery. Eyre and Sturt both vainly attempted to reach mid-continent from Adelaide; this was at last achieved in April by John McDouall Stuartwho in went still farther, to Darwin.
Meanwhile, the central north and the northeast had been penetrated from Sydney; the most famous explorer was Ludwig Leichhardtwho led two successful expeditions—47 before disappearing in an attempt to traverse from the Darling Downs to Perth.
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Later explorations of Western Australia in the s added the names of John Forrest and Ernest Giles to the pantheon of explorer-heroes. Aboriginal people Economic development by Europeans had as its necessary complement the ravaging of Aboriginal life.
Some tension always threatened as the two groups met, but, often, Aboriginal people were accommodating and responsive. A kind of coexistence might have evolved had not European pastoralism generated an inexorable demand for land.
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Aboriginal people responded with guerrilla warfareoften fiercely and tenaciously. Ultimately, more than 20, of them and almost 2, Europeans are estimated to have died as a consequence. Disease and alienation, often allied with massive physical displacement, wreaked further havoc. Overlanders attacking Australian Aboriginal people Overlanders cattle drovers attacking Australian Aboriginal people, drawing by George Hamilton, There had always been a stream of humanitarian and Christian concern for Aboriginal people in European Australia.
In Tasmania only a very few persons of full Tasmanian Aboriginal descent survived byand they were the last. The separate histories of each state therefore have particular importance for this period. Withal, patterns were similar, and federation at length came about in Politics Democracy was largely established, save that the upper houses remained elitist in franchise and membership.
Governments often had short and inchoate lives, but the constitutions survived. Political groupings were extremely intricate, often personal or power-seeking in origin, but allowing some expression for liberal or conservative ideology.
Reformers put much faith in education and strove toward providing adequate primary schooling for all. Other forms of state aid to religion tapered away.
Factory legislation and rudimentary social services developed; however, restriction of nonwhite, especially Chinese, immigration was enforced, for Europeans feared these labourers would reduce living standards, but the restriction was also a matter of sheer racism.
The economy Overall the economy prospered, with the European population rising to 3, in Wool and metals continued as the great export income earners. Railway construction aided rural industry and proceeded remarkably quickly, notably in the s: Most of the required capital was raised overseas on behalf of governments, contributing to the extremely important role played by the public sector in economic growth.
The s were less prosperous. This resulted in part from a worldwide decline in wool prices and investor confidence. Thus the new Commonwealth gained recognition as a laboratory for social experimentation and positive liberalism. Despite this, a number of writers "imagined a time when Australia would outstrip Britain in wealth and importance, when its open spaces would support rolling acres of farms and factories to match those of the United States.
Bradywhose book Australia Unlimited described Australia's inland as ripe for development and settlement, "destined one day to pulsate with life. Anglican Church of Australia and Roman Catholicism in Australia In the early years of the century the Church of England in Australia transformed itself in its patterns of worship, in the internal appearances of its churches, and in the forms of piety recommended by its clergy.
The changes represented a heightened emphasis on the sacraments and were introduced by younger clergy trained in England and inspired by the Oxford and Anglo-Catholic movements. The church's women and its upper and middle class parishes were most supportive, overcoming the reluctance of some of the men.
The changes were widely adopted by the s, making the Church of England more self-consciously "Anglican" and distinct from other Protestant churches. The opposition of the strong conservative evangelical forces within the Sydney diocese limited the liberals during the s, but their ideas contributed to the formation of the influential post-World War II Christian Social Order Movement.
The efforts early in the century were impeded by weak organisation within each denomination. Interdenominational differences over organisation, the status of the ministry, and to a lesser extent doctrine also stood in the way.
Bythe theological liberalism of unionist leaders made the entire movement suspect to orthodox members, especially Presbyterians. Most important was the opposition and apathy of the general membership of the churches. The leaders who designed plans for union had ignored the laity in the decision-making process and had failed to develop practical co-operation at the local level.
Patrick Cardinal Moran —the Archbishop of Sydney —, believed that Catholicism would flourish with the emergence of the new nation through Federation inprovided that his people rejected "contamination" from foreign influences, such as anarchism, socialism, modernism and secularism. Moran distinguished between European socialism as an atheistic movement and those Australians calling themselves "socialists;" he approved the objectives of the latter while feeling that the European model was not a real danger in Australia.
Moran's outlook reflected his whole-hearted acceptance of Australian democracy and his belief in the country as different and freer than the old societies from which its people had come. Australia sent many thousands of troops to fight for Britain during the First World War between and Thousands lost their lives at Gallipolion the Turkish coast and many more in France. Both Australian victories and losses on World War I battlefields contribute significantly to Australia's national identity.
By war's end, over 60, Australians had died during the conflict andwere wounded, a high proportion of thewho had fought overseas. Bill Gammage has suggested that the choice of 25 April has always meant much to Australians because at Gallipoli, "the great machines of modern war were few enough to allow ordinary citizens to show what they could do. After the Australian Imperial Forces AIF was withdrawn in lateand enlarged to five divisions, most were moved to France to serve under British command.
The AIF's first experience of warfare on the Western Front was also the most costly single encounter in Australian military history.
In Julyat Fromellesin a diversionary attack during the Battle of the Sommethe AIF suffered 5, killed or wounded in 24 hours. Two bitterly fought and divisive conscription referendums were held in Australia in and Both failed, and Australia's army remained a volunteer force.
Monash's approach to the planning of military action was meticulous, and unusual for military thinkers of the time. His first operation at the relatively small Battle of Hamel demonstrated the validity of his approach and later actions before the Hindenburg Line in confirmed it. At one point Hughes declared: The Labor Party, Irish Australians, Catholics and the trade unions heavily overlapping categories were bitterly opposed to conscription, and Hughes and his followers were expelled from the party when they refused to back down.
In and again in the voters rejected conscription in national plebiscites. See History of Australian Conscription Hughes united with the Liberals to form the Nationalist Partyand remained in office untilwhen he was succeeded by Stanley Bruce. Labor remained weak and divided through the s. The new Country Party took many country voters away from Labor, and in the Country Party formed a coalition government with the Nationalists. Fisher argues that the government aggressively promoted economic, industrial, and social modernisation in the war years.
That is, liberalism, pluralism, and respect for cultural diversity gave way to policies of exclusion and repression. He says the war turned a peaceful nation into "one that was violent, aggressive, angst- and conflict-ridden, torn apart by invisible front lines of sectarian division, ethnic conflict and socio-economic and political upheaval.
Racist hostility was high against toward nonwhites, including Pacific Islanders, Chinese and Aborigines.
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Paris Peace Conference, The Australian delegation. Hughes said that he had no objection to the equality proposal provided it was stated in unambiguous terms that it did not confer any right to enter Australia. Hughes was the most prominent opponent of the inclusion of the Japanese racial equality proposal, which as a result of lobbying by him and others was not included in the final Treaty, deeply offending Japan.
Hughes demanded that Australia have independent representation within the newly formed League of Nations Hughes was concerned by the rise of Japan. Though Japan occupied German possessions with the blessings of the British, Hughes was alarmed by this policy. In a same-same deal Japan obtained control over its occupied German possessions, north of the equator.
Hughes obtained a class C mandate for New Guinea. Edith Cowan — was elected to the West Australian Legislative Assembly in and was the first woman elected to any Australian Parliament.
After the war, Prime Minister Billy Hughes led a new conservative force, the Nationalist Partyformed from the old Liberal party and breakaway elements of Labor of which he was the most prominentafter the deep and bitter split over Conscription. An estimated 12, Australians died as a result of the Spanish flu pandemic ofalmost certainly brought home by returning soldiers.
Despite splits, the party remained active until its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. The goal was to enhance the status of the graziers operators of big sheep ranches and small farmers, and secure subsidies for them. Other significant after-effects of the war included ongoing industrial unrest, which included the Victorian Police strike.
Other major strikes occurred on the waterfront, in the coalmining and timber industries in the late s. The union movement had established the Australian Council of Trade Unions ACTU in in response to the Nationalist government's efforts to change working conditions and reduce the power of the unions. New South Wales has had one further territory surrendered, namely Jervis Bay Territory comprising 6, hectares, in The external territories were added: The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in Jazz music, entertainment culture, new technology and consumerism that characterised the s in the USA was, to some extent, also found in Australia.
A Royal Commission in failed to assist and the industry that had begun so brightly with the release of the world's first feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gangatrophied until its revival in the s.
Speaking in earlyBruce summed up the priorities and optimism of many Australians, saying that "men, money and markets accurately defined the essential requirements of Australia" and that he was seeking such from Britain. A Loan Council set up in to co-ordinate loans, three-quarters of which came from overseas. Wheat and wool made up more than two-thirds of all Australian exports," a dangerous reliance on just two export commodities. Coastal sailing ships were finally abandoned in favour of steam, and improvements in rail and motor transport heralded dramatic changes in work and leisure.
In there were 50, cars and lorries in the whole of Australia. By there wereHe went on to global fame and a series of aviation records before vanishing on a night flight to Singapore in Australia's dependence on primary exports such as wheat and wool was cruelly exposed by the Great Depression of the s, which produced unemployment and destitution even greater than those seen during the s.
The Labor Party under James Scullin won the election in a landslide, but was quite unable to cope with the Depression. Labor split into three factions and then lost power in to a new conservative party, the United Australia Party UAP led by Joseph Lyonsand did not return to office until Australia made a very slow recovery from the Depression during the late s.