May 6, A forest trust relationship between the two organizations Active Directory Both Forests need to be in Forest Functional Level or higher; Name Stub Zone – How to configure a DNS Stub Zone in Windows Server. Aug 27, Once you know how to configure Domain Name Servers (DNS) for collaboration between two Windows Server servers, it is time to start. Mar 31, Describes an issue in which you receive the "The trust relationship between this this workstation and the primary domain failed" error when you log in to Windows 7 Select Change settings next to the computer name.
OK, so the Army has a lot of picky rules and red tape, so what about a corporation? Well, there are even situations in the corporate world in which a company-wide forest is a bad idea. Imagine for a moment that you work for a large company with offices in many different cities. It might even seem logical. Keep in mind though that the feasibility of such a design all boils down to trust. One day you get a phone call from the corporate headquarters and they want you to grant access to a particular file share to the Marketing group in the Las Vegas, Nevada office.
Remember that the Las Vegas office consists of an independent domain over which you have absolutely no control. The best that you can do is to hope that the network administrator in Las Vegas would not make someone who would do harm to your resources, a member of the Marketing group.
As you can see, it all boils down to trust. The question is how much trust do you have in the administrators of the other domains? What if one of the other administrators is focused on network domination? Normally, a domain level administrator has administrative permissions over their own domain, but not over the forest.
This means that they have absolutely no control over any of the other domains. However, all an administrator needs in order to become a forest level administrator is to have their account added to the Enterprise Admins group. There are numerous elevation of privilege exploits that can be used to add a user to the Enterprise Admins group. Since the user in question is already a domain administrator, such exploits become much easier to pull off.
Once they do, they have full control over every domain in the forest, including yours. As you can see, there are lots of situations in which full trusts are not exactly desirable. If your company needs a little more isolation between domains for security reasons, consider implementing multiple forests rather than having a single forest. However, when ever a trust is created between forests, the trust exists only between the domains that explicitly approved the trust.
For example, suppose that a domain named Posey was a part of a multi domain forest. As a part of that forest, a trust relationship would automatically exist between the Posey domain and every other domain in the forest. Now, suppose that the Administrator of the Posey domain decided to create an external trust with another forest.
Therefore, the administrator would have to explicitly specify which domains within the external forest that they would like to trust. In fact, as far as the other domains are concerned, the trust does not even exist.
It the other domains in the forest want to honor the external trusts, the administrators of those domains must explicitly define the trust relationships from their own domain to the external domains.
In these situations, you can isolate domains or groups of domains by creating separate forests. Trust Relationships Within an Active Directory Forest Active Directory in Windows introduced the concept of two-way transitive trusts that flow upward through the domain hierarchy toward the tree root domain and across root domains of different trees in the same forest.
This includes parent-child trusts between parent and child domains of the same tree and tree root trusts between the root domains of different trees in the same forest. Because of this arrangement, administrators in general no longer need to configure trust relationships between domains in a single forest. In a transitive trust relationship, Domain A automatically trusts Domain C through Domain B when the other two trusts are created.
In addition, Windows Server provides for another trust relationship called a shortcut trust. It is an additional trust relationship between two domains in the same forest, which optimizes the authentication process when a large number of users need to access resources in a different domain in the same forest. This capability is especially useful if the normal authentication path needs to cross several domains.
Suppose that users in the C. The authentication path must cross five domain boundaries to reach the C. If an administrator establishes a shortcut trust between the C. This is also true for shorter possible authentication paths such as C. This also facilitates the use of Kerberos when accessing resources located in another domain.
Interforest Trust Relationships Whenever there is need for accessing resources in a different forest, administrators have to configure trust relationships manually. Windows offers the capability to configure one-way, nontransitive trusts with similar properties to those mentioned previously, between domains in different forests. You have to explicitly configure every trust relationship between each domain in the different forests.
If you need a two-way trust relationship, you have to manually configure each half of the trust separately. Windows Server makes it easier to configure interforest trust relationships. In this section, we study these trust relationships. In a nutshell, for forests that are operating at the Windows Server forest functional level, you can configure trusts that enable two-way transitive trust relationships between all domains in the relevant forests.
If the forest is operating at any other functional level, you still need to configure explicit trusts as in Windows Windows Server introduces the following types of interforest trusts: External trusts These one-way trusts are individual trust relationships set up between two domains in different forests, as can be done in Windows The forests involved may be operating at any forest functional level.
You can use this type of trust if you need to enable resource sharing only between specific domains in different forests. You can also use this type of trust relationship between an Active Directory domain and a Windows NT 4. Forest trusts As already mentioned, these trusts include complete trust relationships between all domains in the relevant forests, thereby enabling resource sharing among all domains in the forests. The trust relationship can be either one-way or two-way.
Both forests must be operating at the Windows Server forest functional level. The use of forest trusts offers several benefits: They simplify resource management between forests by reducing the number of external trusts needed for resource sharing. They provide a wider scope of UPN authentications, which can be used across the trusting forests.
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They provide increased administrative flexibility by enabling administrators to split collaborative delegation efforts with administrators in other forests.
Directory replication is isolated within each forest. Forestwide configuration modifications such as adding new domains or modifying the schema affect only the forest to which they apply, and not trusting forests. They provide greater trustworthiness of authorization data. Administrators can use both the Kerberos and NTLM authentication protocols when authorization data is transferred between forests.
Realm trusts These are one-way nontransitive trusts that you can set up between an Active Directory domain and a Kerberos V5 realm such as found in Unix and MIT implementations. Establishing Trust Relationships This section examines creating two types of trust relationships with external forests: We then look at the shortcut trust, which is the only configurable type of trust relationship between two domains in the same forest.
Before you begin to create trust relationships, you need to be aware of several prerequisites: You must be a member of the Enterprise Admins group or the Domain Admins group in the forest root domain. New to Windows Serveryou can also be a member of the Incoming Forest Trust Builders group on the forest root domain.
This group has the rights to create one-way, incoming forest trusts to the forest root domain. If you hold this level of membership in both forests, you can set up both sides of an interforest trust at the same time. You must ensure that DNS is properly configured so that the forests can recognize each other. In the case of a forest trust, both forests must be operating at the Windows Server forest functional level. Windows Server provides the New Trust Wizard to simplify the creation of all types of trust relationships.
The following sections show you how to create these trust relationships. Know the variations of the procedures so that you can answer questions about the troubleshooting of problems related to interforest access as they relate to the options available when creating trusts.
In particular, be aware of the differences between the incoming and outgoing trust directions Creating an External Trust Follow Step by Step 3. In the console tree, right-click your domain name and choose Properties to display the Properties dialog box for the domain. Select the Trusts tab. This tab contains fields listing domains trusted by this domain and domains that trust this domain. Initially these fields are blank, as in Figure 3.
Click Next, and on the Trust Name page, type the name of the domain with which you want to create a trust relationship see Figure 3. The Trust Type page, shown in Figure 3.
Select External Trust and then click Next. The Direction of Trust page, shown in Figure 3. Two-way Creates a two-way trust. This type of trust allows users in both domains to be authenticated in each other's domain. Users in the other domain cannot be authenticated in your domain. Users in your domain cannot be authenticated in the other domain. Select a choice according to your network requirements and then click Next. The Sides of Trust page, shown in Figure 3.
Planning Trust Relationships in a Windows Server Environment
Otherwise, select This Domain Only and then click Next. You must specify the same password when creating the trust in the other domain. Type and confirm a password that conforms to password security guidelines, click Next, and then skip to step Ensure that you remember this password. Domain-Wide Authentication This option authenticates users from the trusted domain for all resources in the local domain.
Microsoft recommends this option only for trusts within the same organization. Selective Authentication This option does not create any default authentication.
You must grant access to each server that users need to access. Microsoft recommends this option for trusts that involve separate organizations, such as contractor relationships.
Select the appropriate type of authentication and then click Next. The Trust Selections Complete page displays a list of the options that you have configured see Figure 3. Review these settings to ensure that you have made the correct selections. If any settings are incorrect, click Back and correct them. The Trust Creation Complete page informs you that the trust relationship was successfully created.
Click Next to finish the process. The Confirm Outgoing Trust page asks whether you want to confirm the outgoing trust see Figure 3. If you have configured the trust from the other side, click Yes, Confirm the Outgoing Trust.
Planning Trust Relationships in a Windows Server 2003 Environment
The Confirm Incoming Trust page asks whether you want to confirm the incoming trust. Choices are the same as on the previous page. If you want to confirm this trust, enter a username and password for an administrator account in the other domain. The Completing the New Trust Wizard page verifies the confirmation of the trust from the other side. You are returned to the Trusts tab of the domain's Properties dialog box see Figure 3. The name of the domain with which you configured the trust now appears in one or both of the fields according to the trust type you created.
Click OK to close this dialog box. Creating a Forest Trust Recall that this type of trust can be created only between two Active Directory forests that are both operating at the Windows Server forest functional level. Follow Step by Step 3. Type the name of the forest root domain with which you want to create a trust and then click Next.
On the Direction of Trust page, select the appropriate direction for the trust and then click Next. On the Sides of Trust page, specify whether you want to create the trust for this domain only or for both this domain and the specified domain, and then click Next.
If you are creating the trust for both forests, specify a username and password for the specified forest and then click Next. If you are creating the trust for this forest only, specify a trust password, which the administrator in the other forest will need to specify to complete the creation of the trust for her forest.
Make a choice and then click Next.