Australia's state border corners: The bizarre, remote borders that define our states
Apr 10, Dean Rundell crouches in the marsh grass, clad in three different kinds of waterbird abundance across eastern Australia for three decades. Australia–United States relations are the international relations between the Commonwealth of . The venue of the meeting alternates between the two countries. . Australia's Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, ratified the Kyoto Protocol on 3. The six state parliaments are permitted to pass laws related to any matter that is not controlled by the Commonwealth under Section 51 of the Australian.
Cambage in his book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown.
Insome of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. History of the Australian Capital Territory Before white settlementthe area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal peoplewhile the Ngarigo lived immediately to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu also to the south, Gandangara people to the north, and Wiradjuri to the north west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places, camps and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements. European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the s. The district's change from a rural area in New South Wales to the national capital started during debates over Federation in the late 19th century. By many accounts, it was decisive in the selection of Canberra as the site inas was a result of survey work done by the government surveyor Charles Scrivener.
The competition was boycotted by the Royal Institute of British Architectsthe Institution of Civil Engineersand their affiliated bodies throughout the British Empire, because the Minister for Home Affairs, King O'Malley insisted that the final decision was for him to make rather than an expert in city planning.
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O'Malley appointed a three-member board to advise him, but they could not reach unanimity. On 25 November the board advised that it could not support Griffin's plan in its entirety, and suggested an alternative plan of its own devising, incorporating the best features of the three place-getting designs as well as of a fourth design by H.
Scott-Griffiths of Sydney, the rights to which it had purchased. The alliance has only been invoked once, for the invasion of Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon.
War on Terror[ edit ] Following the September 11 attacksin which eleven Australian citizens were also killed, there was an enormous outpouring of sympathy from Australia for the United States. Bush 's strongest international supporters, and supported the United States in the invasion of Afghanistan in and the invasion of Iraq in In the Bush Administration "fast tracked" a free trade agreement with Australia.
Australia's state border corners: The bizarre, remote borders that define our states
The Sydney Morning Herald called the deal a "reward" for Australia's contribution of troops to the Iraq invasion. Despite this, there have been suggestions from the Australian government that might lead to an increase in numbers of Australian troops in Afghanistan to roughly 1, This deployment was criticised by an editorial in the Chinese state-run newspaper People's Daily and Indonesia's foreign minister,  but welcomed   by Australia's Prime Minister.Trump/Russia: Moscow rules (3/3) - Four Corners
Following the conference ofthe Canadian federal model was no longer considered appropriate for the Australian situation. It gave just a few powers to the federal government and left the majority of matters within the legislative competence of the states. It also provided that the Senate should consist of an equal number of members from each State while the Lower House should reflect the national distribution of population.
Andrew Inglis Clarka long-time admirer of American federal institutions, introduced the US Constitution as an example of the protection of States' rights. He presented it as an alternative to the Canadian model, arguing that Canada was "an instance of amalgamation rather than Federation.
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Clark's draft constitution[ edit ] Andrew Clark, circa A. Clark had given considerable thought towards a suitable constitution for Australia. During this trip, he began writing a draft constitution, taking the main provisions of the British North America Act and its supplements up throughthe US Constitution, the Federal Council of Australasia Actand various Australian colonial constitutions. The Australian Federation is described as the Commonwealth of Australia There are three separate and equal branches — the Parliament, the Executive, and the Judicature.
The Legislature consists of a House of Representatives and a Senate It specified the separation of powers and the division of powers between the Federal and State governments. Upon his return to Hobart in early Novemberwith the technical aid of W.
Wisethe Tasmanian Parliamentary Draftsman, Clark completed the final form of the Draft Constitution and had a number of copies printed. This proposal provided the broad outline of a Federal government.
Its lower house was to be elected by districts drawn up on the basis of their population, while in the Senate there was to be equal representation for each "province". This American model was mixed with the Westminster system by which the Prime Minister and other ministers would be appointed by the representative of the British Crown from among the members of the political party holding a majority in the lower House.
Griffith identified with great clarity at the Sydney Convention perhaps the greatest problem of all: The main division of opinion centred on the contention of Alfred Deakinthat the lower house must be supreme, as opposed to the views of Barton, John Cockburn and others, that a strong Senate with co-ordinate powers was essential. Griffith himself recommended that the doctrine of responsible government should be left open, or substantially modified to accord with the Federal structure.
Over the Easter weekend inGriffith edited Clark's draft aboard the Queensland Government's steam yacht Lucinda. Clark was not present, as he was ill with influenza in Sydney.
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Griffith's draft Constitution was submitted to colonial parliaments but it lapsed in New South Walesafter which the other colonies were unwilling to proceed. Neasey published by the University of Tasmania Law Press in Quick and Garran, for instance, state curtly that Griffith "had the chief hand in the actual drafting of the Bill.
Before the National Australasian Convention in Sydney in he [Clark] circulated his own draft constitution bill. This was practically a transcript of relevant provisions from the British North American Act, the United States Constitution and the Federal Council Act, arranged systematically, but it was to be of great use to the drafting committee at the convention. Parkes received it with reservations, suggesting that 'the structure should be evolved bit by bit'. Clark's draft also differed from the adopted constitution in his proposal for 'a separate federal judiciary', with the new Supreme Court replacing the Privy Council as the highest court of appeal on all questions of law, which would be 'a wholesome innovation upon the American system'.
He became a member of the Constitutional Committee and chairman of the Judiciary Committee. Although he took little part in the debates he assisted Sir Samuel Griffith, Sir Edmund Barton and Charles Cameron Kingston in revising Griffith's original draft of the adopted constitution on the Queensland government's steam yacht, Lucinda; though he was too ill to be present when the main work was done, his own draft had been the basis for most of Griffith's text.
As Professor John Williams has pointed out: While there is some validity in such observations it does tend to overlook the fact that there are very few variations to be added once the basic structure is agreed.
So for instance, there was always going to be parts dealing with the executive, the parliament and the judiciary in any Australian constitution. The fact that Inglis Clark modelled his on the American Constitution is no surprise once that basic decision was made. Issues of the respective legislative powers, the role of the states, the power of amendment and financial questions were the detail of the debate that the framers were about to address in As to who was responsible for the actual detailed drafting, as distinct from the broad structure and framework of the draft, Professor Williams for one is in no doubt: This is not so much a reflection on Inglis Clark, but an acknowledgement of the talents of Charles Kingston and Sir Samuel Griffith as drafters.
They were direct and economical with words.