Gandhi in South Africa
Document G: Gandhi - The Dharasana Salt Raid. Document H: King, Jr. in the United States, and Nelson Mandela in South Africa - gave the world a model for. In the darkness he led a prayer meeting on a patch of ground overlooking the of nonviolent resistance inspired Martin Luther King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, and the .. For many historians, biographers, and activists, the Salt March was Gandhi's. Moments with Mandela: Meeting South Africa's Gandhi So it can be argued that Nelson Mandela was one of many but was accepted across the a fistful of salt on the beaches of Gujarat, an act that electrified the nation.
For Gandhi, satyagraha went far beyond mere "passive resistance" and became strength in practising nonviolent methods.
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Truth satya implies love, and firmness agraha engenders and therefore serves as a synonym for force. I thus began to call the Indian movement Satyagraha, that is to say, the Force which is born of Truth and Love or nonviolence, and gave up the use of the phrase "passive resistance", in connection with it, so much so that even in English writing we often avoided it and used instead the word "satyagraha" Even though it succeeded in raising millions of Indians in protest against the British created Rowlatt Actsviolence broke out at Chauri Chaurawhere a mob killed 22 unarmed policemen.
Gandhi suspended the protest, against the opposition of other Congress members. He decided that Indians were not yet ready for successful nonviolent resistance. It succeeded in paralysing the British government and winning significant concessions.
More importantly, due to extensive press coverage, it scored a propaganda victory out of all proportion to its size. Bardoli has shown the way and cleared it. Swaraj lies on that route, and that alone is the cure Expectations were heightened by his repeated statements anticipating arrest, and his increasingly dramatic language as the hour approached: For that reason, he recruited the marchers not from Congress Party members, but from the residents of his own ashramwho were trained in Gandhi's strict standards of discipline.
The route of the march, along with each evening's stopping place, was planned based on recruitment potential, past contacts, and timing. Gandhi sent scouts to each village ahead of the march so he could plan his talks at each resting place, based on the needs of the local residents.
If my letter makes no appeal to your heart, on the eleventh day of this month I shall proceed with such co-workers of the Ashram as I can take, to disregard the provisions of the Salt Laws. I regard this tax to be the most iniquitous of all from the poor man's standpoint. As the sovereignty and self-rule movement is essentially for the poorest in the land, the beginning will be made with this evil.
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After he ignored the letter and refused to meet with Gandhi, the march was set in motion. An American academic writing for The Nation reported that "60, persons gathered on the bank of the river to hear Gandhi's call to arms.
The conversations we had with them revealed not only the extraordinary viciousness of the earlier regime, but also the amazing stamina, brilliance and variety of the freedom fighters themselves.
Their accounts of torture and resistance only added to our respect for the people of this beautiful nation. Thabo Mbeki was elected on that occasion as the next presidential candidate of the ANC, even as Mandela demitted office. In a historic speech made on that occasion, Mandela described the situation in South Africa as well as outlined what the ANC should really aspire to achieve in the immediate future.
Every sentence he uttered was greeted with a hugely enthusiastic response from the stadium, which was bustling with ANC cadres from all over South Africa, each province with its own colour reflected in the garments people wore.
They both shared an ability to love the people and transmit that love to them. When he finished and officially handed over charge to Mbeki, there was a tense, unforgettable moment. At this, an ominous silence descended on the audience. After a minute's pause during which the suspense only grew, Mbeki added, "Have you seen his shoes?
They are the ugliest, dirtiest old shoes that I have ever seen! In fact, that big smile was typical of the man and was commented upon internationally. It exuded warmth and empathy and brought a twinkle to his eyes.
India Together: Moments with Mandela: Meeting South Africa's Gandhi - 01 December
Every leader claims to love his or her people. But to translate this connect into reality needs an extraordinary warmth. His unique attribute, one that makes him stand tall amongst the world's leaders, is the genuineness of his love for his people.
The two men first met in April when Gandhi led a delegation to raise concerns over the impending legislation requiring the registration of Indians. As it turned out, the agreement as Gandhi understood it did not hold.
When the two men met again in June of that year it became clear that the law would not be repealed and the battle lines were redrawn.
After the incident of the burning of the passes at Hamidia Mosque in Fordsburg on 16 AugustGandhi was summonsed to Pretoria for a high-level meeting with Smuts, Botha and others.
This time around, some further concessions were granted but not sufficient to stop the satyagraha campaign. Eventually, Smuts oversaw the passage of the Indian Relief Act that was passed in On 30 Junethe two men signed a pact bringing to an end the satyagraha campaign in South Africa. Having achieved a major victory, Gandhi decided to return to India by way of the United Kingdom.
There he was to ultimately lead his home country to independence from British rule using the political experience he had gained in South Africa.