Calaméo - RELIGIONS IN EUROPE
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The sanctuaries take different forms in different places: Le temple de tradition celtique est le fanum. These practices are still far from being fully understood and the latest findings in Roquepertuse show that the severed heads adorned the inside of the sanctuary and not the outside: These shrines are most often located on relatively high points and are aimed at a set of confederate cities.
They are the priests of the Celtic religion, they are the knowledge holders especially of time and calendar and of memory the writing: According to Caesar, the use of writing is for druids but not for religious purposes. The writing is only used to compile accounts of public and private records. They use the Greek alphabet. The essential point of their teaching is that souls do not perish but after death they pass from one body to another; they think that this belief is the best stimulus of courage because we are no longer afraid of death.
Druids celebrate divine services, offer sacrifices and practice divination. They are also responsible for the education of the youth to whom they teach the moral and martial virtues.
For the purpose of this teaching, they use long rhythmical poems that trace the history of their people and include elements of law and, perhaps astrology. They can be assumed to have contributed to forge a national feeling. They are lawmakers and judges and they also play the role of arbitrator between tribes who submit themselves to their mediation. If an individual or a people did not comply with their decision, they ban him sacrifices.
It is for the Gauls the most serious sentence. Those who have been hit by the ban are considered as wicked and criminals, excluded and not allowed to ask for justice. Ils peuvent se marier. During the full moon nights, druids go into the woods to gather the mistletoe on oaks.
These priests who orally transmit their knowledge to rare insiders constitute a caste, under the supreme authority of a leader elected during all his life. The Gallic druids gather every year foundation of justice in the Carnutes forest near Chartres the supposed center of Gaul. Druids are exempt from military function but a warrior can be a Druid and tax charges.
They can get married. JC The ovates are especially in charge of sacrifice and divination. The Dryads are soothsayers women therefore have a role in the Celtic clergy. Bards are poets, composers and singers who are inspired by emotional issues, they are accompanied by lyre and glorify the princes who they are attached to. Druids through religion cement the different tribes.
So they are regarded by the Romans as the only force that can resist them. To eliminate them Roma accused the Druids to practice human sacrifices. Det var en gud som hette Bure. Efter ett tag fick Bure en son som hette Bor. Blodet blev floder och hav. The creation A long, long time ago there was nothing but a big infinite gap, called Ginnungagap. There were two worlds, one filled with ice and the other with fire.
To the south lay the glowing Muspelheim, in the north was the biting cold Nifelheim. When the two worlds of fire and ice met the first life was created, a giant named Ymir. Also a cow named Audhumbla was created from of the ice.
The cow was fed by licking salt from a stone. One day a man appeared in the stone - a god named Bure. After a while, Bure had a son named Bor. Ymir drank the milk from the cow Audhumbla.
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When the giant Ymir slept, a man and a woman grew out of his armpit and from one of his legs came a son. Bor a god and Betsla a giant got the children Odin, Vili and Ve.
Blood flooded from Ymir and drowned all giants except for one, and his family. Odin, Vili and Ve lifted Ymir's body to Ginnungagaps centre where they created the world from him. Earth was built from his flesh, the mountains of his bones. The blood became rivers and seas.
The teeth and jaws became boulders and rocks. Of Ymir's skull theycreated the heavens and the brain became the clouds. Sparks from Muspelheim became stars. The maggots in Ymir's flesh became dwarfs. Ymir's bones became mountains and valleys, his hair became the forest, of the flesh, they created the earth.
Tillsammans har de bara ett barn. Tyr Son till Oden och krigets och kampens gud. Gods Tyr Son of Odin and god of war and struggle.
His main weapon is the sword. Tyr is a formidable fighter who often helps Thor in his tussles with the Giants. He hates his departed cousin Frey, and also has no high opinion of his half brother Balder.
Tyr's right hand was swallowed by Fenrir when he shackled the monster in the underworld. Has given its name to the day of the week Tuesday Tirs day. Frey is the god of fertility and crops. He makes sure that people can have children, and that everything in the nature is growing and flourishing as it should. He is married to the giantess Gerd, and they live with their servants and Beila Byggver 33 in the house Alvheim.
Frey is the son of the Vans Injury and Njord. His sister is Freya. He usually riding around on the pig Gyllengalte whose bristles are made of gold. In his pocket, he carries the ship Skidbladner that can be folded like a handkerchief, and fly up in the sky. From the beginning, Frey took a magic sword that swung itself. It would have been one of the most powerful weapons against the giants during Ragnarok.
But Frey gave it to the giant Gymir, in exchange he got married Gymir daughter Gerd! Earlier, Frej also faught the stallion Blodighove. This he also gave away to her best friend Skirner who helped him in wooing. Instead Frey acquired a sharp antler that he fights with. Frey has given its name to the day Friday Seed-day. Oden Oden is the God of greatest god.
He lives in Valhalla, the biggest house in Asgard, with his wife, Frigg. Together, they have only one child. But he also has many other sons and daughters with different people, trolls and giants. He is considered a truely incredible seducer.
In the beginning Odin created the world with his brothers Vili and Ve. They also gave life to the first humans. Oden is very skilled in magic. By picking out one of his eyes and dropping it into the well of wisdom, he can see everything that happens in the world, and what will happen. His nails provide himwith his own spear at the world-tree's trunk, in exchange for their pains get to know the universe's dark secrets.
By going into hibernation Oden can transform his spirit to any being.
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He raises the dead to consult them and ask about the past. Oden also mastered the art of singing incantations, which was the most powerful of all spells. By his side you always find his wolves Gere "the greedy" and Freke "The spear stabbing".
At feasts in Valhalla, he gives all the meat in his ow portion to the wolves. He only drinks wine himself. His two ravens Hugin "Thought" and Munin "Feeling"are sent out every day in the world.
In the evening, they return to Valhalla and gossip in his ears about things that happened. He takes up his eight-legged stallion Sleipnir, the fastest in the world, and wields in battle spear Gungnir and the sword Mimung.
Sometimes Odin disguises himself and walks around 34 among people. Then he wears a big hat and a cloak. Oden has given its name to the day of the week Wednesday, Onsdag. Thor Tor is Odin's eldest son, god of thunder and the strongest of the Aesir. He has a terrible temper, but he is never malicious. He is the kind of simple, but brave man that the Vikings admired most of all.
They also have two young people in their household, the fast-footed farmhand Tjalve and talented maid Roskva. Tor defends Asgard against giants and other monsters. To help, he has the hammer Mjolnir, forged by the dwarf Sindre. Mjolnir is thrown against the giants and flies around until it reaches its goal, then it returns to Thor's hand. During his rampage, it moves so fast that it appears as a shiny flash of lightning in the sky.
When skull of a giant is crushed you hear a thunder, which of course often comes after lightning. Thor also wears strength belt Mengingjord and sometimes an iron glove on his right hand. When he goes giant hunting, he travels around in a beer jar pulled by the goats Tandglese and Tandgnissle. Thor's main enemy is the Midgard Serpent, and the two will meet in agony during Ragnarok.
Tor is actually the one that will protect the entire cosmos with his incredible strength, but his bad temper often brings them dangerously close to major disasters. In retrospect Tor always regrets his mistakes and feels ashamed. Has given his name to the day of the week Thursday, Torsdag.
Ull Ull is the god of hunting. He usually also supervises duels. Siv, who is Thor's wife, gave birth the Ull before she met Tor. Ull is tall and handsome, and is often seen going up in the wilderness on his snowshoes or on an enchanted bone.
His main weapon is the sun arrow, that he fires from his strong bow. It is possible that Ull was the most important god in Scandinavia during the Bronze Age, because he was the god of the sun.
Hur man bodde 1. Walls were the wood are laid crossways. Hangers in the roof. Mitt i hallen brann en eldstad, ofta dag som natt. The highest person in the society was the king, then the free men and then there were slaves. The slaves were usually owned by the kings or the free men.
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The slaves harvested the fields and helped the kings. A household during the time of the vikings could be pretty huge since the families were big. The woman was very respected in the community. She was equal to her husband in almost everything. When the men were traveling the women took care of the household and defended the farm.
Infidelity was a crime and both men and women could be punished for it. But a man could have more than one wife, if he told his first wife. Generally the vikings can be considered as great romantics and gentlemen, but there were also some who were not very nice. Hangers in the ceiling. Ceiling, covered with birch bark 5. Peat roof The house consisted of a long room with a door, but without any windows.
Light could only come in though a hole in the ceiling, where the smoke was evacuated. In the middle of the room there was a fire place, lit mostly day and night. When it was not lit, it was completely 37 dark. The food you ate at these kinds of events was normally boiled or roasted meat. The funerals In the beginning of the viking times they burned all the dead bodies on stack. The custome was forbidden when christianity came to Sweden. If the dead person was especially important he was burned on a ship.
Sometimes they burned the ship ashore and sometimes on land. The dead person had all their belongings with them when they were buried.
They discussed taxation and conflicts between citizens and other matters. Anyone could suggest important matters to discuss. The council lasted for a week, and all free men had to attend. The laws were simple but severe crimes were punished with fines or death. Crimes commited by children under the age of 15 were considered accidents.
Es fruto de la suma de tres componentes de dicho idioma: At present that zone is known as Spain. We have to go back up to Classic Greek to find the etymological origin of the term polytheism, which means "doctrine that follows many gods".
It is the result of the sum of three components of the above mentioned language: The polytheism, thus, turns out to be the opposite to monotheism the doctrine based on the existence of only one god. In the polytheism there is an"explanation" for everything since any fact or situation is attributed to one or another. And it is because they can appeal to a god in order that he or she intercedes for him in front of another god.
In the same way, more freedom of action is given to men and women because their gods are not omnipotent. One of the facets in which they left their fingerprints was in the different polytheistic religions that they practised.Edward Maya & Vika Jigulina - Stereo Love (OFFICIAL HQ VIDEO) (Ultra Music)
Pudo haber una divinidad. The Prerroman people The first information that is possessed about settlements in the Peninsula date back to the first millennium B.
The most ancient people who inhabited the Peninsula receive the name of Tartessos and it was located around the mouth of the river Guadalquivir. There are no written documents of this people but this one is mentioned in Greek and Phoenician texts. Tartessos was destroyed by the Carthaginians who wanted to dominate the route of the metals, till then in Tartessos's hands, which had acquired a great development in the mining industry.
They had established commercial relations with Greeks and Phoenicians though they were devoting themselves especially to the agriculture. In they found archaeological remains of great value in Carambolo, which are believed to belong to the population of Tartessia.
As for its religion, there is very little information, but it is thought that, as other people of the Mediterranean, it was a polytheistic religion too. It is also believed that they could have adored a goddess product of the acculturation of the Phoenicians, astante or potnia. Los cultos se celebran en santuarios construidos a cierta distancia de los pueblos. En algunos funerales se peleaba sobre la propia tumba hasta la muerte, como en el entierro de Viriato.
The Iberian people clustered in separated tribes with the same culture located in the eastern part of the peninsula. They knew how to write documents found but the Iberians have not been able to decipher them. The Iberian cities lacked temples but they built sanctuaries where they deposited offerings, the votive offerings, which were made of bronze, clay or stone and used to represent warriors with weapons like the falcata and the helmet.
In the Iberian world we find cults similar to the cycles of Mother Earth, typical of the first agricultural people, while others may rather be related to the belief in the celestial deities, typical of the people dedicated to livestock and grazing.
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The worship to Diana that Strabo tells us is one of the many invocations in which the monolithic faith into Mother Earth or Mother Goddess splintered. The bull, animal to which the Iberians worshiped, is a polyvalent symbol, which both may be related to the goddess of the earth and the gods of heaven.
Cults are celebrated in shrines built at a distance from the settlements. The worship at shrines adopted an annual pilgrimage way, which surely coincided with the cycles of agriculture, particularly with the summer solstice.
The predominant funeral ritual is cremation; the ashes were deposited in an urn or cloth. The Iberians used the rite of incineration, known thanks to the Dama de Bazain the ArchaeologicalMuseum Madrid 44 Phoenicians who introduced the Urn field culture. The ashes were kept in ceramic urns with the shape of a cup with lid and undecorated.
Others had the shape of a box with legs ending in claws, with lids and decoration of animals. The urns were introduced in pits dug in the ground together with a funeral trousseau. Tumuli have been found with ceramic containers at the feet of the deceased, as it happens with the Lady of Baza, who is sitting in a kind of winged throne or the Lady of Elche, that stores and protects the remains and funerary objects.
In other tumuli the weapons of the deceased were deposited, who was incinerated and introduced into an ornamented vessel made of ceramics. In some funerals warriors fought on the tomb to death, as in the funeral of Viriato.
About 9, years ago, the last communities of hunter-gatherers who occupied the Iberian Peninsula began to bury people systematically in cemeteries, a habit that is linked to the progressive sedentarization of these societies and a significant change in their economic activities.
The oldest cemetery of the Iberian Peninsula is in Oliva Valencia. The remains are are between and years old. Some places of worship such as urban sanctuaries have been identified. Sacred spaces have also been identified, such as the domestic sanctuary of The Oral S. These figures are both priestesses and warriors, on foot or on horseback.
Others are sacrificing an animal with a knife, or showing their respect with their hands up, or with open arms. Las tribus celtas son muchas, y destacaban los lusitanos, los vacceos y los carpetanos. Los celtas habitaban aldeas, llamadas castros, muy fortificadas y sin apenas calles y se organizaban en tribus o clanes. Como puede suceder con cualquier otro. Y queremos que las vean todas, que no se las pierdan.
La variedad es uno de los ejes cartesianos, pero la calidad es el principal. Un Festival es un sitio de encuentro. Comienzan a atenuarse las luces de las salas. And not only that.
RELIGIONS IN EUROPE
Murnau had the premiere of The General and Faust. And if all this was not enough, when Orson Welles turned 26 years old, Citizen Kane had been on for a week.
The figures and their relation with cinema confirm it: As it may happen with any other. Nor will this 26th edition of the Festival. We have a lot of things to tell you, but the best way of doing it is through our screens.
Perhaps we are being daring, but we feel that all the films included in the following pages are ours. And we want you to see them all, not to miss them. Variety is one of the Cartesian axes, but quality is the most important one. It is not repeating the repeated, but emphasizing a conviction already declared in previous editions: A Festival is a meeting point. We have also followed the rule that says that a Festival starts the day after finishing the previous one, the same thing we are planning to do from 14 November on.
We are already proud of what we have to offer in this 26th edition.