Les Observations Astronomiques et les Astronomes (Stroobant). . Following the meeting of two International Commissionsin Paris in meetings at Charleroi,12 June and 11 December ; Paris, Construction: Chairman: Dr. V. M. Hoge (U.S.A.); Secretary:Dr. R. F. Bridgman (France). II. 6 rf. -sewed 6 l map, aid the^iamtivl «i„S|? L,^ ' The 'bc^ris^n'l^'o'Ä. From Brüssels to Namur by Braine - le - Comte aud Charleroi 1. According to a note written npon the original design, which is preserved in the 9 1 h R.: Hamman, Adr. Vessel in a monastery at Bruges, playing on the organ; Stroobant ^ H6tel. Phone, Suggest a phone number RF-Design Stroobant. Local Business. Unofficial Page. RF-Design Stroobant. Posts about RF-Design Stroobant. There are no stories available. About.
Human intelligence, shown as numbers, reverses to be above the crosses. The point Bacon makes is that a pinhole camera obscura in its magical reproduction of an image is a dark place of evil magic, a place where there is proof that the devil exists, therefore, human intelligence, that is, religion, is irrefutable.
Enlightened intellectual thought—even years after Roger Bacon and even coming from those who participated to make the Italian Renaissance—still theoretically combined religious mystery—dogma with human understanding. Both were linked to the camera obscura as well as to the eye. Later, the English empiricist philosopher John Locke — compared pinhole camera obscura imagery to the gleaning of human understanding. These alone, as far as I can discover, are the windows by which light is let into this dark room.
For, methinks, the understanding is not much unlike a closet wholly shut from light, with only some little opening left. Artistic developments of the peep show box are shown in Chapter 2. By the s almost all cameras obscuras had lenses rather than a pinhole for projecting an image.
The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau — compared the deceptive illusions that could be represented in a painting to the clarity of inner truth obtainable by the lens camera obscura likeness. This is my portrait, not a book. I shall be working, as it were, in a camera obscura. No art is needed beyond that of tracing exactly the features that I observe there.
I am decided, then, upon the style as on the things. Etching, lens camera obscura and text, from Johann Arndts Wahren Christenthum,p. Parishioners reading the caption under what looks to be an ordinary drawing of a lens camera obscura Figure 1. Darkened and Backwards This person stands before a camera obscura which is a chamber that has been darkened except for a little hole, and a prepared glass is held before it.
Then it happens that the people who are walking past in the alley and can be seen in the chamber, but indeed upside down. Through this it is indicated that man because of his dark fall from grace in his heart and in his mind, unfortunately is lost! Totally dark, even backwards, and upside down. This is transforming an image of God into an image of Satan. This overt institutional control manifested itself through endless capitalism: The quote is generally contributed to Marx.
In her very insightful Camera Obscura: Of Ideologytranslated into English in Sarah Kofman states that for Marx the camera obscura is the very symbol of the veil. Ideology, the camera obscura, here takes on all those connotations which hold true equally for unconscious and mythical thought. Ideology represents real relationships veiled, under cover.
It functions, not as a transparent copy obeying laws of perspective, but, rather, as a simulacrum: To this, Marx opposes the values of clarity, light, transparency, truth, rationality. Camera obscura has also regressed in a philosophical sense into what it always has been in the practices of the common people: Religion is the crystallized form of ideology which, in the end, puts human destiny in the hands of God and bolsters capitalism by giving a false image of reality and naturalizing the prevailing mode of production and relations of production.
People believe that capitalism is an eternal and natural mode of production and, therefore, do not see its historical quality and possibilities for change. Other institutions of the superstructures of society work along the same lines: Though for Marx, the turning of the image in camera obscura symbolizes the turning of consciousness, ultimately the device was for Marx— according to Kofman—a perfect, clearly seeing eye.
In the production relations of capitalism, camera obscura only functioned as the upholder of the fallacy. The fault, therefore, was not in the device per se but in the society that made it the upholder of the fallacy.
The situation would change through social activity, when the capitalist manner of production was overturned and the image in camera obscura was turned the right way up. He proclaimed in Twilight of the Idols Not to go in for backstairs psychology.
Never to observe in order to observe! That gives a false perspective, leads to squinting and something forced and exaggerated. Experience as the wish to experience does not succeed. Nature, estimated artistically, is no model. It exaggerates, it distorts, it leaves gaps. To see what is—that is the mark of another kind of spirit, the anti-artistic, the factual.
One must know who one is. It is still an updated archetypal motif with its mysterious imaging capacity; its lens remains the eye that sees. For what other reason would a camera be black on its outside? What might it do? Could a black box be used for mind control? Even with its lens system removed, or with the outer lens covered with tape—nor did Serios have to hold the camera to click the shutter Figure 1.
When he did create an image, it usually had a soft, often blurred, mysterious dream-like quality, quite similar to a pinhole image, particularly when compared to a sharply focused lens image. Because of this similarity, is it possible to say that dream imagery created in the mind, which everyone has, more or less, looks most like pinhole imagery? In this image, Serios had no physical contact with the camera, which was held in turn by Dr.
17 TH SYMPOSIUM OF THE BELGIAN SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE - PDF
If we are capable of accepting that psychic phenomena does exist, then there is no reason to believe that it could not be updated to include photography as one of its many outlets. When a large pinhole is made in its ceiling or high on a vertical wall, the cathedral becomes an ideal camera obscura.
This line is known as a noon-mark. At noon, as the sun traverses the sky, a solar image bisects this meridian line. Technologically, the noon-mark in a darkened cathedral was an advancement over the open-air pierced gnomon—a more visible solar image could be studied and time calculated more precisely.
The smaller disc was placed by Paolo Toscanelli in The larger disc matches the true size of the solar image at the summer solstice; it was placed in If you want to see the meridian line, it is uncovered at the summer solstice; the pinhole is available to see on Sundays when the curtains on the cupola are drawn back—at least those were the strict rules a decade ago when I was there.
That solar image crosses a footlong noon-mark meridian line. Both the pinhole and the noon-mark were designed by Giandomenico Cassini in Because the sun is higher in the sky in the summer and lower in the winter, ecclesiastical holidays, shown as inscriptions along the meridian line, are lit by the solar disc on the correct days.
He has calculated that the solar image moves its own diameter in seconds, or one-tenth of an inch per second. It is actually feasible to set your watch—or, back then, your waterclock—to a 1-second accuracy!
The pinhole is clearly visible as a hole in the mouth of the God of the South Wind, painted almost at the top of La Tempesta sedata on the south wall. Inusing this pinhole image of the sun, Ignatio Danti and the papal astronomers showed Pope Gregory XIII that the spring equinox fell incorrectly on March 11th, rather than on March 21st.
This difference had led to a gradual change in the calendar date of the equinox, so that by the calendar date was 10 days earlier than the equinox. The Pope decreed that October 5 in the outmoded Julian calendar would become October 15 in the new Gregorian calendar so that the March equinox of fell on the correct day, March Under the Julian calendar, a single day was gained in about years.
To correct this discrepancy, the Gregorian calendar omits the additional day in February in century years not divisible by Thus was a leap year, but, and were common years. The year was a leap year. Reconstructed drawing in a photograph, Vatican. Sulpice in Paris has one, as does the castle El Escorial outside Madrid. One of the most beautiful and easy to visit is the still semifunctioning one in the cathedral S.
Maria degli Angeli in Rome, a brief walk from the main train station. With some luck, some of these can also be viewed. Information about meridians and noon-marks can be gleaned from J. After abouta camera obscura referred to a box, tent, or room with a lens aperture used by artists to draw the landscape.
A ChronicleAdam Hilger Ltd. Gemma Frisius also used a camera obscura to study sunspots, small dark areas that appear from time to time on the sun. Over the centuries, these studies were to be paramount for proving the wave theory of light.
From De Radio Astronomica et Geometrico, From Secrets of the Sun by the late Ronald Giovanelli. Reproduced by permission, Cambridge University Press.
Collection of the British Museum, London. From Physico-mathesis de lumine, coloribus, et iride, aliisque adnexis libri duo, This opens possibilities for adaptation to fully individualize patient treatment. The second use of molecular imaging for radiotherapy purposes focusses around hypoxia.
Tumour cell hypoxia is a known characteristic of solid tumour lesions, which negatively influences treatment efficacy. Hypoxia imaging allows selecting patients which will benefit from specific anti-hypoxic treatments or benefit from a radiation boost [Peeters, CCR ].
In future, treatment strategies can be designed which are based on multiple imaging techniques to optimize individual treatment incorporating the complementary use of FDG-PET and hypoxia imaging for radiotherapy purposes [Zegers, CCR ]. A biomarker of response would identify patients who will benefit from continued treatment saving toxicity 24 and costs in patients who will not respond. At a societal level, development and validation of such biomarkers is essential to keep health care affordable.
In the past 30 years, response to systemic or chemoradiotherapy has been assessed by measuring tumor diameters with CT scans currently using the RECIST system. It has become clear that change of size is slow and inaccurate to reflect clinical benefit, especially with the new targeted agents.
Alternatively, in vitro markers and functional imaging have potential in this field. However, it is unclear to which extent the diagnostic performance of this biomarker is a function of tumour type, intervention, timing of PET, and methodologies of PET acquisitions and analyses. Several thresholds of signal change to represent response have been proposed and heterogeneity among studies prevails; prospective validation of data-driven thresholds or proposed response taxonomies is rare.
These criteria were based on scarce available repeatability data at that time.
Here, one of the main problems is the lack of a comprehensive re analysis of effect-modifiers and confounders of these imaging techniques. However, extensive validation has not been performed of either system. Therefore we estimate that it is not yet possible to define a validated response classification taxonomy for solid tumours. Since it is unlikely that large comprehensive observational studies will be launched to start the analyses from scratch, we suggest to perform an individual patient data meta-analysis of existing datasets and that we start building warehouses of current prospective studies for such purposes.
Knowledge of the repeatability characteristics of the 18F-FDG PET metrics, to be able to distinguish measurement noise from true biological change is a key basic requirement for any further validation de Langen AJ et al, J Nucl Med ; In the last decade, guidelines have been developed and accreditation systems are in place e.
These guidelines should be updated from time to time to accommodate new technologies latest version: The next step should comprise standardisation of metabolic volume assessments, ie.
Vendors of scanners and software should be aware that it is not a selling point to design equipment which generates different SUV or metabolic volume numbers than those of their competitors. In QIBA Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Allianceimaging specialists, referring physicians, vendors of scanners and software, and pharmaceutical industries are trying to arrive at agreements on these topics.
Second, we applied such strategy to prospectively plan HCC treatments with 90Y glass microspheres. Response was monitored with radiological criterion EASL and treatment related liver decompensation was ad hoc defined with a time cut-off of 6 month. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment.
A second series of sequential real life patients were treated planning the activity according to absorbed dose averaged on the whole parenchyma less than 75 Gy and tumor absorbed dose larger than Gy, if possible.
Child A toxic vs non toxic treatment were significantly separated in terms of dose averaged on whole non tumoral parenchyma including non irradiated regions with AUC from 0.
TD50 was Gy. A parenchyma mean dose limit which can be used for planning, was TD15 75 Gy. Maximal 90 Y activity safely injected was 14 GBq. The second cohort was clinically non comparable to the first one for larger tumor dimension, more advanced PVT stage, and use of concomitant Sorafenib in some cases. This required a retrospective selection in order to make a meaningful comparison of the clinical outcome between the phase II cohort and corresponding dosimetry subgroup.
A dosimetric treatment planning criterion for Child A patients without complete obstruction of portal vein was developed and applied to patients. Preliminary data shows that this planning method markedly changed the individual prescribed activity with respect to the standard Therasphere prescription and resulted in same level of toxicity incidence, with improvement of two months over 15 of the overall survival. The management of medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma will not be discussed.
Radio-iodine can be used as remnant ablation RRA destroying residual benign thyroid tissueadjuvant therapy no known residual tumor, but high risk for recurrenceand therapy known residual tumor, tumoral lymph nodes or distant metastases.
Therefore, a more individualized approach is required, balancing the benefits against the risks and inconvenience of the treatment. To this extent, the use of prognostic systems is strongly recommended. This is done on three levels. For low risk DTC, there is good evidence to use rhtsh with 1.
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For patients with R0 resection no residual primary tumor who underwent a radio-iodine administration, measurement of rhtsh stimulated serum thyroglobulin combined with neck ultrasound months after thyroidectomy can stratify the patients according to their response to treatment from excellent to biochemical or structural incomplete and subsequent risk of recurrence from low to high.
This so called Dynamic Risk Stratification 27 not only influences the intensity and strategy of the follow up, but also the level of TSH suppression that should be aimed for. This type of risk stratification needs update during longterm follow-up.
Besides surgical resection and external radiotherapy, new treatment modalities are now available: Due to the rarity, care for these patients and treatment modalities should preferentially be concentrated in regional expert centres.
Guidelines for the management of thyroid cancer. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Update on differentiated thyroid cancer staging.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. To acquire knowledge on the use of different techniques than diphosphonate scintigraphy in bone and joint imaging. To acquire knowledge on the use of novel software reconstructions and evolving hardware in bone and joint disease. This session is directed towards a broad audience represented by nuclear medicine practioners and technicians alike. Different bone and joint disorders both benign and malignant require different diagnostic techniques, including both nuclear medicine and radiological imaging.
Whole body skeletal scintigraphy has great sensitivity for the vast majority of bone and joint diseases including osteoarthritis, infection and osteoblastic metastasesbut lacks specificity . Imaging of a single joint will fail to explain the patients pain in many cases e.
Deciding on the best imaging technique in patients with suspected bone and joint disease and choosing the right imaging protocol is challenging. This particularly holds true for patients with low back pain as it is well known that unnecessary imaging may contribute to more unnecessary investigations and unnecessary treatment in these patients.
In selected patients with chronic low back pain, scintigraphy can be useful, however. Specific red flags in patients with low back pain that may indicate malignancy, infection, cauda equine syndrome, disc herniation or aortic aneurysm can pinpoint usefulness of imaging in LBP.
Also guidelines for when to use bone scintigraphy or other techniques both nuclear medicine and radiology can be helpful to choose the most efficient strategy in patients with suspected bone and joint disease. Imaging procedures are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having MSI.
Radiographs are often the first imaging technique to start with whenever MSI is suspected, even when not diagnostic in order to assess the anatomy. This may help in the selection and interpretation of subsequent procedures. The current status on imaging musculoskeletal infections is discussed. A low dose CT can yield diagnostic images in a growing number of cases, especially in the extremities.
This makes knowledge of pathology found on CT of increasing importance. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question . Software techniques allow lower dose or faster scanning, maintaining good diagnostic results. Some of these techniques are illustrated during this presentation. Infection and musculoskeletal conditions: Imaging of musculoskeletal infections. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Huellner MW, Strobel K: Their tissues are more radiosensitive They have a longer lifetime to manifest radiation induce injuries cancer, cataract Each exam dose is cumulative Therefore measures need to be made to minimize CT radiation exposure.
Following steps can be made to reduce the amount of radiation that children receive from CT exams: Consider alternative non-radiating exams, only perform CT if necessary Optimize exposure parameters reduce scan length, reduce tube voltage, adjust the ma modulation Use the best CT-system, with the most advanced iterative reconstruction technique, available The introduction of Model Based Iterative Reconstruction MBIR technique in our hospital in helped us to develop low dose CT protocols for pediatric patients.
This dose reduction has been done cautiously and step by step. Multiple examples of images from the scan protocols and correlating radiation doses will be presented during this lecture. As four principal Ra daughters undergo alpha decay, Ra is mainly considered as an alpha emitter for which special radiation protection measures should be taken. However, Ra and daughters emit also photons and electrons representing and added value in patient dosimetry assessment, practical staff radiation protection and waste management.
In most cases no alpha-specific measurement equipment is needed for quantification purposes. With a half-life of As Ra is produced by the decay of Ac through Th and separated through anion exchange from these mother nuclides, 31 one should pay however special attention to the potential presence of long-lived Ac as a contaminant in commercial RaCl 2 batches.
The combination of the relatively long half-life of 22 years and the very low regulatory clearance level of only 10 Bq. Because low Ac levels are technically difficult to detect immediately post production, quantification should occurs preferentially at a later stage. In a recent study, the presence of low Ac levels was assessed in 37 vials from 24 different commercial batches of RaCl 2.
17 TH SYMPOSIUM OF THE BELGIAN SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE
All vials were measured using g-spectrometry on a precalibrated High-Purity Ge-detector at least days post calibration date. The results indicate that the regulatory clearance level of Ac could be exceeded in case relatively large unused volumes of RaCl 2 are disposed as waste.
Bart Dehaes Everything started a few years ago with two events.
All these decisions resulted finally I a number of royal decrees altering the nomenclature of nuclear medicine examinations and the reimbursement criteria for radio-isotopes. These royal decrees will be published soon and all these changes will become effective in the months to come.
Changes in the non-pet nomenclature: Also an overview will be given concerning the different dates all these changes will become effective. Hein Verberne, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Over the past decades, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging MPI has become a major tool for the non-invasive evaluation and management of patients with coronary artery disease.
MPI is routinely used to assess the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis and has proven its established value for risk assessment. Although there is a growing number of alternative functional imaging techniques, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy still remains the most widely available and used technique in the wok-up of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. In recent years radionuclide imaging technologies have evolved rapidly with the development of new instrumentation and new agents.
This has increased both the number and the complexity of choices not only for the clinician and nuclear medicine physician but also for 33 the nuclear medicine technologist. For example Regadenoson has been introduced as a selective stimulator of the A2A receptor with minimal or no stimulation of the other adenosine receptor subtypes and thereby reducing some of the side effects encountered with nonspecific adenosine receptor stimulators.
Also dedicated cardiac SPECT cameras have been introduced with the possibility of combining ultrafast acquisitions and reduction of patient radiation while maintaining image quality. The latter may pave the way for important changes in the daily practice of MPI.
However, despite all these changes the majority of the principles behind myocardial perfusion scintigraphy have remained unchanged. The purposes of these lectures are to explain the state-of-the-art applications and protocols for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and to illustrate how to implement these in daily clinical practice and how to overcome and prevent possible pitfalls. Special attention will be paid to the pivotal role of the nuclear medicine technologist in these processes.
Inadequate training with CM can lead to negative consequences in the clinical setting. Methods A basic understanding of the occurrence, risk factors, clinical features, and management of these procedures is of increasing importance to the nuclear medicine technologist. After this lecture, the technologist will be able to list the factors that increase the risk of contrast 34 reactions; understand ways to minimize the occurrence of contrast reactions; and develop a plan to identify, treat, and manage the reactions effectively.
Conclusion Iodinated contrast media are frequently used and are safe. Reactions, when they occur, are usually mild but may occasionally progress to life-threatening proportions. The vast majority of patients with severe anaphylactoid-type reactions recover if they are treated quickly and appropriately so awareness and training of technologist is necessary.
Based on scintillating crystals, photodetectors and readout electronic, this gamma photon detection approach gave rise to almost all Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography systems. This presentation will give an overview of the different components involved in most Emission tomographic systems that are now routinely used in the clinic and in research and will discuss recent advances in instrumentation, paving the way to new opportunities for preclinical and clinical imaging.
Each of these modules behaves like a miniature gamma-camera head. This modular design then allows rethinking nuclear medicine systems, and especially SPECT systems that have for a long time being based on the Anger camera. Additionally, the good energy resolution of semiconductor detectors helps contrast enhancement and enables multi-isotope acquisition and the improved spatial resolution contributes to change collimation design trade-offs.
The evolution of machine design has to take into account these new capabilities to fully take profit of these new detectors. After a brief overview of semiconductor detection technology, we will present some existing 35 commercial systems and experimental developments.