How are monomers, polymers, and macromolecules related to each other? | Socratic
Mar 22, Proteins and nucleic acids are two examples of polymers. These giant molecules are also called macromolecules. In hydrolysis, water interacts with a polymer causing bonds that link monomers to each other to be broken. Aug 20, When combined with other monomers, polymers are formed. Manmade Monomers group together to form long chains of macromolecules called polymers. proteins and fats derives from the linkage of several monomers. Aug 27, Monomers are smaller molecules, and when bonded together, make up acids, there are countless types of protein that are formed with them).
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the sugars and their polymers. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides. These can be joined to form polysaccharides 3. Glucose is an important monosaccharide. Sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of two monosaccharidesis table sugar. Note the ending "ose" common to most sugars. Polysaccharides may be made from thousands of simple sugars linked together.
These large molecules may be used for storage of energy or for structure. First a couple of storage examples: Starch is a storage polysaccharide of plants. Its is a giant string of glucoses. The plant can utilize the energy in starch by first hydrolyzing it, making the glucose available.
How are monomers, polymers and macromolecules related? | Socratic
Most animals can also hydrolyze starch. That's why we eat it. Animals store glycogen as a supply of glucose. It is stored in the liver and muscles. Cellulose is a polysaccharide produced by plants. Its is a component of the cell walls. Cellulose is also a string of glucose molecules. Because the glucoses are joined together differently cellulose has a different shape, and therefor different properties, than starch or glycogen.
The enzymes we'll learn more about these soon that are used to hydrolyze starch don't work on cellulose. Most organisms cannot digest cellulose and it passes right through them roughage. Goats and termites don't really digest cellulose, they have bacteria that do it for them. Chitin is an important polysaccharide used to make the exoskeletons of arthropods. Lipids Lipids are all similar in that they are at least in part hydrophobic. There are three important families of lipids: Fats Fats are large molecules made of two types of molecules, glycerol and some type of fatty acid.
The fatty acid has a long chain of carbon and hydrogen, usually referred to as the hydrocarbon tail, with a carboxyl group head. The carboxyl group is why its called an acid. Glycerol has three carbons 3.
These can be the same three or different. This arrangement of three is why fats are called triglycerides. Fats may be saturated or unsaturated. This has to do with the amount of hydrogen in the tail. Unsaturated fatty acids have some hydrogen missing, with double bonds replacing them. The double bond give the fatty acid a kink 3. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and come from animals, unsaturated fats come from plants and are liquid at room temperature. Fats are used as a high density energy storage in animals and in plants seeds.
It may also be used in animals for insulation. Phospholipids Phospholipids are like fats but they have two fatty acids and a phosphate group joined to glycerol. The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic but the phosphate part is hydrophilic.
This is an important feature of these molecules. More about phospholipids when we cover membrane structure. Steroids Steroids are also lipids but they have a carbon skeleton of four connected rings no glycerol here 3.
The different properties of different steroids are due to the attached functional groups. Cholesterol is a steroid that can be modified to form many hormones. Proteins Proteins are extremely important.
They are large, complex molecules that are used for structural support, storage, to transport substances, and as enzymes. They are a sophisticated, diverse group of molecules, and yet they are all polymers of just 20 amino acids. Amino acids have a carbon attached to a hydrogen, an amino group, a carboxyl group and something else R.
Its the something else that give the amino acid its characteristics 3. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds dehydration synthesis 3. Polypeptide chains are strings of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds.
Ethylene in turn serves as a base monomer for other compounds such as ethanol. Both plants and organisms make natural polymers.
Sciencing Video Vault Polymers found in nature are made from monomers that feature carbon, which bonds readily with other molecules. Methods used in nature to create polymers include dehydration synthesis, which joins molecules together yet results in the removal of a water molecule.
Hydrolysis, on the other hand, represents a method of breaking polymers down into monomers.
This occurs via breaking bonds between monomers via enzymes and adding water. Enzymes work as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions and are themselves large molecules. An example of an enzyme used to break a polymer into a monomer is amylase, which converts starch to sugar.
How are monomers, polymers and macromolecules related?
This process is used in digestion. People also use natural polymers for emulsification, thickening and stabilizing food and medicine. Some additional examples of natural polymers include collagen, keratin, DNA, rubber and wool, among others. Simple Sugar Monomers Simple sugars are monomers called monosaccharides. Monosaccharides contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules.
These monomers can form long chains that make up polymers known as carbohydrates, the energy-storing molecules found in food.
Glucose is a monomer with the formula C6H12O6, meaning it has six carbons, twelve hydrogens and six oxygens in its base form. Glucose is made chiefly via photosynthesis in plants and is the ultimate fuel for animals. Cells use glucose for cellular respiration. Glucose forms the basis of many carbohydrates. Other simple sugars include galactose and fructose, and these also bear the same chemical formula but are structurally different isomers.
The pentoses are simple sugars such as ribose, arabinose and xylose.
Combining the sugar monomers creates disaccharides made from two sugars or larger polymers called polysaccharides.
For example, sucrose table sugar is a disaccharide that derives from adding two monomers, glucose and fructose. Other disaccharides include lactose sugar in milk and maltose a byproduct of cellulose. An enormous polysaccharide made from many monomers, starch serves as the chief storage of energy for plants, and it cannot be dissolved in water. Starch is made from a huge number of glucose molecules as its base monomer. Starch makes up seeds, grains and many other foods that people and animals consume.
The protein amylase works to revert starch back into the base monomer glucose. Glycogen is a polysaccharide used by animals for energy storage. Glycogen differs from starch by having more branches. When cells need energy, glycogen can be broken down via hydrolysis back into glucose. Long chains of glucose monomers also make up cellulose, a linear, flexible polysaccharide found around the world as a structural component in plants. Many animals cannot fully digest cellulose, with the exception of ruminants and termites.
Another example of a polysaccharide, the more brittle macromolecule chitin, forges the shells of many animals such as insects and crustaceans. Simple sugar monomers such as glucose therefore form the basis of living organisms and yield energy for their survival.
Monomers of Fats Fats are a type of lipids, polymers that are hydrophobic water repellent. The base monomer for fats is the alcohol glycerol, which contains three carbons with hydroxyl groups combined with fatty acids. Fats yield twice as much energy as the simple sugar, glucose. For this reason fats serve as a kind of energy storage for animals. Fats with two fatty acids and one glycerol are called diacylglycerols, or phospholipids.
Lipids with three fatty acid tails and one glycerol are called triacylglycerols, the fats and oils. Fats also provide insulation for the body and the nerves within it as well as plasma membranes in cells. Monomers of Proteins An amino acid is a subunit of protein, a polymer found throughout nature. An amino acid is therefore the monomer of protein.
Proteins provide numerous functions for living organisms. Several amino acid monomers join via peptide covalent bonds to form a protein. Two bonded amino acids make up a dipeptide. Three amino acids joined make up a tripeptide, and four amino acids make up a tetrapeptide.
With this convention, proteins with over four amino acids also bear the name polypeptides. Of these 20 amino acids, the base monomers include glucose with carboxyl and amine groups. Glucose can therefore also be called a monomer of protein.
The amino acids form chains as a primary structure, and additional secondary forms occur with hydrogen bonds leading to alpha helices and beta pleated sheets. Folding of amino acids leads to active proteins in the tertiary structure. Additional folding and bending yields stable, complex quaternary structures such as collagen. Collagen provides structural foundations for animals.
The protein keratin provides animals with skin and hair and feathers. Proteins also serve as catalysts for reactions in living organisms; these are called enzymes.
Proteins serve as communicators and movers of material between cells. For example, the protein actin plays the role of transporter for most organisms.
- What Are Monomers?
- Monomers in Nature
The varying three-dimensional structures of proteins lead to their respective functions.