What Is The Relationship Between Depression And Violence? - ABC News
The association between depression and violence has been fairly under-studied, especially in comparison with schizophrenia, and this has led. Researchers find that while vast majority of patients aren't violent, misuse, they still found a link between depression and violent crime. try to make The Guardian sustainable by deepening our relationship with our readers. The authors review the association between depression and violence, and the role that anger and emotional dysregulation play.
Moreover, in studies showing associations, they have been largely confounded by comorbid alcohol or drug use 13 or sociodemographic factors, 15 or primarily noted in individuals with psychotic depression.
Because these are strong risk factors for violence, 17 they will amplify and perhaps explain any effects. Some studies have tried to control for these confounders, but none to our knowledge have also adjusted for familial effects.
Familial effects could be a further explanation for the reported association with depression and could arise from common genetic predisposition or shared early environmental adversity. Mediation of mechanisms such as impulsivity and mood instability could be important as common causes of both depression and violence.
In the first, we longitudinally followed up patients with an index diagnosis of depression to determine risks of violent crime; only outpatients were included to avoid the probable biases associated with inpatient samples.
Risks of violent crime were also investigated in non-depressed siblings to determine the extent of familial confounding, and a comparison was made with risks from suicide mortality. In the second study, we investigated the association between depressive symptoms and violent crime in a cohort of twins.
These studies accordingly control for the major confounds we identify in the existing literature. Because clinical guidelines are inconsistent about assessment and management of violence risk in major depression, and lack information about risk factors, 1920 by contrast to self-harm and suicide for which risk assessment is clearly highlighted in guidelines 192021 and expert opinion, 22 we investigated such rates in the same cohort to compare risks across outcomes where clinical guidelines provide differing recommendations.
Methods Study design and participants In this total population study, we linked several longitudinal, nationwide Swedish Patient Register: The Multi-Generation Register connects every person born in Sweden in or after and ever registered as living in Sweden after to their parents.
Linkage of registers is possible because all residents including immigrants have a unique ten-digit personal identification number that is used in all national registers.
We selected a cohort of individuals born between Jan 1,and Dec 31,who were followed from Jan 1,to the end of follow-up on Dec 31, National outpatient coverage in the Patient Register started on Jan 1,which was the reason that we started our follow-up at that time.
Using the Multi-Generation Register, we also identified patients with depression who had siblings and half-siblings without depression during the same period.
Using the Swedish Twin Register, we identified young adult to middle-aged aged 18—47 years twins born between Jan 1,and Dec 31,who had participated in the Study of Twin Adults: We determined zygosity with DNA testing or validated zygosity questionnaires. Data were merged and anonymised by an independent government agency Statistics Swedenand the code linking the personal identification numbers to the new case numbers was destroyed after merging, so informed consent was not required.
Diagnostic validity Data from the Swedish Patient Register diagnoses have good to excellent validity for a range of conditions, including bipolar disorder 28 and schizophrenia. These data were extracted both before as covariate and after diagnosis as outcome of depression. Conviction of a violent offence was defined as homicide and attempted homicide, aggravated assault an assault that is life-threatening or leads to severe bodily harmcommon assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offence rape, sexual coercion, child molestation, and sexual harassment [including indecent exposure]and illegal threats or intimidation.
Thus, conviction data included individuals who received custodial or noncustodial sentences and people transferred to forensic psychiatric hospital. The mean age of the sample was ALSPAC recruited 15, pregnant women residents in the Avon area who expected to deliver a child between 1 April and 31 Decemberresulting in 15, children.
For reasons of confidentiality, triplets and quadruplets were excluded. In the current study, we used data from a subsample of adolescents who participated in ALSPAC clinic sessions and were asked to fill in questionnaires related to depressive symptoms and violent behaviors. The total sample included 4, adolescents 1, male [ The FBC study is a prospective nationwide population investigation in Finland. It consists of 60, children born in Finland in Data on the use of health care services, criminality, as well as family and socio-demographic background were obtained from official registers.
Diagnosed depression linked to violent crime, says Oxford University study | Society | The Guardian
At age 13 years, adolescents responded to the questionnaire on a 4-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 almost never to 4 usually. Adolescents reported on their depressive symptoms at age 13 years, with a three-point scale including 1 true2 sometimes trueand 3 not true.
Data were reversely coded so that higher scores indicated higher depressive symptoms. Mean scores of depressive symptoms were calculated for the logistic regression analyses. HDR has been found to be a valid and reliable tool for epidemiological research. Participants with at least two outpatient episodes as a main diagnosis between January 1,and December 31, 11—25 years were identified as having a diagnosis of depression, according to the International Classification of Diseases—10th Revision ICD; codes FF Among the 59, participants in the FBC cohort, 3, 6.
Diagnosed depression linked to violent crime, says Oxford University study
In addition, we excluded individuals with an inpatient diagnosis of depression but without an outpatient diagnosis of depression from the general control sample. Therefore, there were 2, individuals with clinical depression diagnoses and 55, general controls without depression. Violent behaviors included stealing from a person with threat or force, assault, hurting someone with weapon, and beating or kicking someone.
Adolescents who committed at least one of the listed violent behaviors from the second to the fifth measurements 14—17 years of age were categorized as being violent. Adolescents were categorized as being violent if they had committed any of the following behaviors from measures at age 14 to In FBCinformation on violent convictions was retrieved from the Finnish Legal Registration Centre that covers crimes committed for all individuals from the age of 15 years, the age of criminal responsibility in Finland, to age 27 i.
We extracted data for violent crimes both before as covariate and after as outcome diagnosis of depression.
For population controls without depression, violent convictions occurring before and after the mean date of diagnosis of depression were used as covariate and outcome, respectively. Convictions for violent crimes in FBC included homicide, all forms of assault, robbery, rape, and sexual offense toward a child. Statistical Analyses To calculate the odds ratio of later violence in depression, we conducted logistic regression analyses in Mplus, 25 with depressive symptoms and diagnosis as the independent variable and with subsequent violent behaviors and convictions as dependent variables.
To examine whether the association between depression and violent outcomes differed between boys and girls, subgroup analyses were conducted.