Building the mentoring relationship theory

building the mentoring relationship theory

mentoring relationship enables the mentee to learn and grow in a safe and protected environment. building in short stages, say month by month, and flexibility. Relationships and relationship building are essential in teaching, particularly as An application of attachment theory: Mentoring relationship. This is known in the psychology literature as Social Learning Theory (Bandura, Building high-impact mentoring relationships brings a number of benefits at an.

Moreover, the statistical analyses utilized were insufficient to control for pre-existing group differences. A corresponding process evaluation revealed that despite several positive aspects of program implementation and high program satisfaction among mentees, significant deviation from program guidelines occurred, and intended program dosage often was lacking. Therefore, the null findings on program impact may have been greatly due to deficiencies in program implementation and fidelity.

Finally, Brezina, Kuperminc, and Tekin examined Mentoring Toward College MTCwhich sought to provide an extra layer of structured mentoring activities beyond the standard services provided, based on the delivery of a specialized curriculum. Unfortunately, these three studies also reported such problems as incomplete implementation of the intervention, inadequate mentor recruitment and training, missing data on outcome measures, staffing challenges, smaller than expected samples, and early match closure.

Perhaps not surprisingly, Kaye and Smith and Peaslee and Teye did not uncover significant improvements in youth outcomes between treatment and control groups, although there were positive effects on attitudes, match length and connectivity, and socio-emotional indicators.

Brezina and colleagues did report significant improvements in both mentee attitudes and behavior, particularly among male mentees in the MTC program. To finish this discussion, it also should be noted that early research on the standard BBBS mentoring program produced supportive findings, in terms of drug and alcohol use, antisocial behavior, academic performance, and prosocial relationships Grossman and Tierney, Using a combined experimental and quasi-experimental design, with a focus on higher risk youth, findings indicated beneficial impacts of mentoring on emotional and psychological well-being, peer relationships, academic attitudes, and grades, but not on positive behavior toward peers, skipping school, misconduct, or parent trust.

building the mentoring relationship theory

These findings led Hererra and colleagues to conclude: Efforts should continue to improve the strength and consistency of the benefits that youth derive from mentoring programs. As a whole, the findings of this study point to a positive, but somewhat inconsistent pattern of benefits for youth who had access to volunteer-centered, one-to-one community-based mentoring over a month period.

For example, the evaluation found no evidence that mentoring helped to curb youth involvement in problem behavior. The findings also suggest, however, that by improving program supports such as the training provided to mentors or to the staff who support the matchit may be possible to strengthen mentoring relationships and potentially, in turn, increase the impact of program involvement on youth outcomes.

Towards a Practice Guided Evidence Based Theory of Mentoring in Palliative Care

In addition to the theoretical applications discussed above, researchers have identified a number of individual, peer, family, school, and community risk factors that are associated with negative adolescent outcomes, such as school dropout, delinquency, and gang involvement Mmari et al. These risk factors include such things as early antisocial behavior, experiencing trauma or abuse, poor cognitive development and academic achievement, weak attachment to parents and prosocial peers, weak commitment to school and conventional activities, delinquent peer association, and high levels of community crime, poverty, and unemployment.

Moreover, some evidence suggests greater mentoring effects for higher risk youth DuBois et al. Although the mentoring research reviewed previously did not establish consistently strong and beneficial effects, the weight of the evidence does suggest that high-quality mentoring relationships do generate positive youth outcomes DuBois et al.

With this in mind, Rhodes and colleagues DuBois et al. The theoretical model proposed by Rhodes and colleagues DuBois et al.

Youth Mentoring: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice

For example, mentees who perceive that their mentors care about them personally; those who experience developmental relationships focused on collaborative goals and skill building; and those receiving longer-term mentoring marked by higher levels of authenticity, companionship, and empathy also exhibit improved socio-emotional and behavioral outcomes DuBois et al. Close personal connections also may guard against early match closure, but the relational skills and abilities needed to be an effective mentor may not come naturally to all volunteers.

This is why mentor-mentee relationship building, along with training and mentor support, appear to be both critical for successful mentoring outcomes and worthy of further scientific investigation through rigorous collaborative research. By collaborating with researchers, mentoring programs can receive assistance with data collection and guidance for conducting methodologically sound evaluations of their services and outcomes.

In sum, youth mentoring is a popular and typically well-funded prevention and intervention approach that enjoys a fair amount of theoretical and empirical support. Much work remains to be done, however, with regard to investigating the complexities of this strategy and understanding the conditions most likely to produce the strongest results. As stated by Rhodesp.

Mentoring likely will remain popular for the foreseeable future, but without meaningful collaboration between researchers and practitioners, the full potential of youth mentoring may not be achieved.

Juvenile reentry and aftercare interventions: Is mentoring a promising direction? Journal of Evidence-based Social Work, 11 4 A case of the development of a long-term collaborative project between a university and a criminal justice agency.

The influence of school-based natural mentoring relationships on school attachment and subsequent adolescent risk behaviors. Future selves, motivational capital, and mentoring toward college: Mentoring special youth populations.

building the mentoring relationship theory

Journal of Community Psychology, 34 6 Mixed methods for policy research and program evaluation. Handbook of youth mentoring. Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: Progress is made through greater participation, learning and practice [ 33 ].

building the mentoring relationship theory

This is reflected in modern clinical training: Cognitive apprenticeship is adapted from the traditional model of apprenticeship focuses upon assimilation and application of cognitive skills [ 36 ]. There are 6 elements to cognitive apprenticeship [ 3436 ] including 1. Role Modeling, which relates to the demonstration of skill by the mentors. Coaching that refers to the provision of feedback by mentors after observing their mentees. Scaffolding which is the process of supporting the mentees in their learning.

Articulation serves to encourage mentees to discuss their thoughts in response to questions. Reflection encourages deliberation upon their actions and the reasons underpinning their strengths and weaknesses.

Exploration allows mentees to frame and pursue their own problems. Empirical data appears to suggest that the cognitive apprenticeship model does capture some of the learning processes seen in clinical and social interactions between mentors and mentees [ 36 ].

Use of mosaicand e-mentoring to facilitate learning, skills training and personal development from multiple mentors within a interprofessional setting facilitates learning of practical skills and physical processes not commonly associated with cognitive apprenticeship model and envisaging mentoring to be a more holistic and evolving learning process [ 3738 ].

Reviewing the data Wahab et al. However Wahab et al.


The goals of the mentoring process may either be set by the mentee or by the organization hosting the mentoring program. Success of the mentoring process pivots upon mentoring relationships which in turn relies upon the personal characteristics of mentors and mentees, the manner that mentoring relationships form, the strength of the mentoring ties within these relationships, the influence of environmental, social, personal, academic, professional and organizational factors and the influence of the host organization in supporting the mentoring relationship.

Based on the five dimensions highlighted, Krishna forwards the Mentoring Pyramid Figure 1 stating that any potential learning theory of mentoring must account for these elements of mentoring practice. This framework takes into account a holistic, yet contextualised picture of the evolving nature of mentoring relationship.

This would include whether the mentoring relationship was informal or formal. The relationship would be determined by the type of research project being mentored, which varies in its duration and frequency of multidimensional appraisal and determines the type and style of support provided. The relationship dimension also includes the degree of mutuality, breadth and depth of the relationship, congruence of mentor and mentee needs and their sensitivity to diversity [ 101144 - 46 ].

building the mentoring relationship theory

Prior Palliative Medicine training [ 1011 ] that empower the mentor to provide holistic review of the mentees and support mentees within a team-based setting are also considered. This aspect of the Mentoring Pyramid considers the support for the mentoring program, whether it is a formal routine established in the curriculum or exists as an informal entity.

This affects the resources given to the mentoring relationship, and thus also determines the degree of availability of mentor training and support. Having a visible champion lets employees know that the business is taking mentoring seriously. As a result, people will feel comfortable dedicating time and attention to their mentoring relationships.

We would recommend kick-starting any mentoring scheme with a networking event. Pairings can take part in different relationship-building exercises to increase knowledge of their backgrounds, expertise, and experiences, and build an understanding of the characteristics of effective mentoring partnerships, such as open communication, mutual commitment, and respect.

This also builds an awareness of the other mentors and mentees taking part in the scheme, offering individuals a much broader support network to draw on. Both mentors and mentees must ensure that they are clear about individual hopes and aims to be achieved from the mentoring relationship, as one of the key reasons a mentoring relationship can fail is a misunderstanding of expectations.

In relationships such as mentoring, we form what is known as a psychological contract — which is our perceptions of mutual obligations towards each other. A broken psychological contract can be damaging for both the mentor and the mentee.

While mentoring conversations can be informal, the overall arrangement should be treated with formality and professionalism. Encourage new thinking A high-impact mentoring relationship requires new thinking from both the mentor and the mentee.

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For the mentor, we offer training and support to prepare them with essential mentoring skills such as active listening, questioning, giving feedback, and handling difficult conversations. We define coaching as low direction — their thinking. The role of the mentor is to help the mentee fill in the gaps by sharing knowledge and guiding their thinking. The role of a coach is to facilitate thinking — helping the coachee to come up with their own solutions using open questions.

The two terms are often confused. Apply new ideas To support in the on-going application of new ideas, it is important that the mentor and mentee maintain a regular frequency of contact. Psychological research has found greater interaction frequency to relate to reported mentee satisfaction and sense of affiliation — which could have a significant positive impact for minority group members within organisatons Eby et al.

Best practice literature suggests an initial frequency of twice a month for the first few months; reduced to monthly contact once the relationship is established Eby et al. Great mentors inspire their mentees to act on the advice they give — this is when we see real positive change happen. Embed new behaviours A commonly reported challenge in mentoring schemes is maintaining momentum.

building the mentoring relationship theory

This can in part be overcome by giving initial contracting the time and attention it requires, so that both parties feel motivated and energised to keep the relationship going.

In addition, continued communications from the senior sponsor and mentoring team — highlighting success stories and offering mentoring tip tips — will help to keep the scheme alive and individuals engaged.