Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
ploitation capability have correlations ranging from mediocre to very and the acquisition capability **) have a middle and positive relationship be the response set — specifically, that the respondents determined the “right” answer. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between culture and society in greater detail, the daily challenges of getting around on a train system that is taxed to capacity. Even so, how that family unit is defined and how it functions vary. . People with the best intentions sometimes travel to a society to “help” its people. Learn how to understand cultures and build relationships with people from other cultures. Whether you want to make sure your children get a good education, bring . In situations like the one described above, becoming impatient with people . for Cultural Competence at Georgetown University increases the capacity of.
These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change. For example, the U. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors. For example, after tropical forests returned at the end of the last ice ageplants suitable for domestication were available, leading to the invention of agriculturewhich in turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in social dynamics.
War or competition over resources may impact technological development or social dynamics. Additionally, cultural ideas may transfer from one society to another, through diffusion or acculturation.
In diffusionthe form of something though not necessarily its meaning moves from one culture to another. For example, hamburgersfast food in the United States, seemed exotic when introduced into China. Diffusion of innovations theory presents a research-based model of why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products.
Acculturation has different meanings, but in this context it refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another, such as what happened to certain Native American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of colonization.
Related processes on an individual level include assimilation adoption of a different culture by an individual and transculturation.
The transnational flow of culture has played a major role in merging different culture and sharing thoughts, ideas, and beliefs.
Early modern discourses German Romanticism Johann Herder called attention to national cultures. Immanuel Kant — formulated an individualist definition of "enlightenment" similar to the concept of bildung: Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant urged: Sapere aude, "Dare to be wise! Moreover, Herder proposed a collective form of bildung: Inthe Prussian linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt — called for an anthropology that would synthesize Kant's and Herder's interests. During the Romantic erascholars in Germanyespecially those concerned with nationalist movements—such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire —developed a more inclusive notion of culture as " worldview " Weltanschauung.
Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures. InAdolf Bastian — argued for "the psychic unity of mankind. Franz Boas — was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States.
In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold — used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world. Another facet of the Romantic movement was an interest in folklorewhich led to identifying a "culture" among non-elites. This distinction is often characterized as that between high culturenamely that of the ruling social groupand low culture.
In other words, the idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within European societies. Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with anarchy ; other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseaucontrasted "culture" with "the state of nature. Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is really an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, other critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is really an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects.
Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature.
These critics considered folk music as produced by "the folk," i. Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous peoples as " noble savages " living authentic and unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified capitalist systems of the West.
In the anthropologist Edward Tylor — applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms. This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture.
American anthropology Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's definition of culture,  in the 20th century "culture" emerged as the central and unifying concept of American anthropologywhere it most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode human experiences symbolicallyand to communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially. Martin Lindstrom asserts that Kulturbrille, which allow us to make sense of the culture we inhabit, also "can blind us to things outsiders pick up immediately.
Sociology of culture The sociology of culture concerns culture as manifested in society. For sociologist Georg Simmel —culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history. Culture can be any of two types, non-material culture or material culture.
The term tends to be relevant only in archeological and anthropological studies, but it specifically means all material evidence which can be attributed to culture, past or present.
Cultural sociology first emerged in Weimar Germany —where sociologists such as Alfred Weber used the term Kultursoziologie cultural sociology. Cultural sociology was then "reinvented" in the English-speaking world as a product of the " cultural turn " of the s, which ushered in structuralist and postmodern approaches to social science.
This type of cultural sociology may be loosely regarded as an approach incorporating cultural analysis and critical theory. Cultural sociologists tend to reject scientific methods, instead hermeneutically focusing on words, artifacts and symbols.
As a result, there has been a recent influx of quantitative sociologists to the field. Thus, there is now a growing group of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural sociologists. Listening to people's stories, we can get a fuller picture of what people's lives are like--their feelings, their nuances, and the richness of their lives. Listening to people also helps us get through our numbness-- there is a real person before us, not someone who is reduced to stereotypes in the media.
Additionally, listening to members of groups that have been discriminated against can give us a better understanding of what that experience is like. Listening gives us a picture of discrimination that is more real than what we can get from reading an article or listening to the radio.
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You can informally ask people in your neighborhood or organization to tell you a part of their life stories as a member of a particular group. You can also incorporate this activity into a workshop or retreat for your group or organization. Have people each take five or ten minutes to talk about one piece of their life stories. If the group is large, you will probably have to divide into small groups, so everyone gets a chance to speak.
Notice differences in communication styles and values; don't assume that the majority's way is the right way. We all have a tendency to assume that the way that most people do things is the acceptable, normal, or right way. As community workers, we need to learn about cultural differences in values and communication styles, and not assume that the majority way is the right way to think or behave.
You are in a group discussion. Some group members don't speak up, while others dominate, filling all the silences. The more vocal members of the group become exasperated that others don't talk. It also seems that the more vocal people are those that are members of the more mainstream culture, while those who are less vocal are from minority cultures.
How do we understand this? How can this be resolved? In some cultures, people feel uncomfortable with silence, so they speak to fill the silences.
In other cultures, it is customary to wait for a period of silence before speaking. If there aren't any silences, people from those cultures may not ever speak. Also, members of some groups women, people of low income, some racial and ethnic minorities, and others don't speak up because they have received messages from society at large that their contribution is not as important as others; they have gotten into the habit of deferring their thinking to the thinking of others.
When some people don't share their thinking, we all lose out. We all need the opinions and voices of those people who have traditionally been discouraged from contributing. In situations like the one described above, becoming impatient with people for not speaking is usually counter-productive.
However, you can structure a meeting to encourage the quieter people to speak.
Culture - Wikipedia
For example, you can: Have people break into pairs before discussing a topic in the larger group. At certain times have each person in the circle make a comment. People can pass if they want to. Follow a guideline that everyone speaks once, before anyone speaks twice. Invite the quieter people to lead part of the meeting. Talk about the problem openly in a meeting, and invite the more vocal people to try to speak less often.
Between meetings, ask the quieter people what would help them speak, or ask them for their ideas on how a meeting should be run. A high school basketball team has to practice and play on many afternoons and evenings. The coach is angry with the parents for this requirement, because it takes his player away from the team.
Families have different values, especially when it comes to family closeness, loyalty, and responsibility.
In many immigrant and ethnic families, young people are required to put their family's needs first, before the requirements of extra-curricular activities. Young people from immigrant families who grow up in the U. As community workers, we need to support and respect minority and immigrant families and their values.
It may already be a huge concession on the part of a family to allow a teenager to participate in extracurricular activities at all.
We need to make allowances for the cultural differences and try to help young people feel that they can have both worlds--instead of having to reject one set of values for another. As community builders, it helps to develop relationships with parents.
If a young person sees her parents have relationships with people from the mainstream culture, it can help her feel that their family is accepted. It supports the teen in being more connected to her family and her community--and also, both relationships are critical protective factors for drug and alcohol abuse and other dangerous behaviors.
In addition, in building relationships with parents, we develop lines of communication, so when conflicts arise, they can be more easily resolved. Risk making mistakes As you are building relationships with people who have different cultural backgrounds than your own, you will probably make mistakes at some point. Don't let making mistakes of making mistakes keep you from going ahead and building relationships. If you say or do something that is insensitive, you can learn something from it.
Ask the affected person what you bothered or offended them, apologize, and then go on in building the relationship. Don't let guilt bog you down.
Learn to be an ally One of the best ways to help you build relationships with people of different cultures is to demonstrate that you are willing to take a stand against discrimination when it occurs. People will be much more motivated to get to know you if they see that you are willing to take risks on their behalf. We also have to educate ourselves and keep informed so that we understand the issues that each group faces and we become involved in their struggles--instead of sitting on the sidelines and watching from a distance.
In Summary Friendship is powerful. It is our connection to each other that gives meaning to our lives. Our caring for each other is often what motivates us to make change. And establishing connections with people from diverse backgrounds can be key in making significant changes in our communities.
As individuals, and in groups, we can change our communities. We can set up neighborhoods and institutions in which people commit themselves to working to form strong relationships and alliances with people of diverse cultures and backgrounds.
We can establish networks and coalitions in which people are knowledgeable about each other's struggles, and are willing to lend a hand. Together, we can do it. Cultural Competence and Community Studies: If you are interested in receiving an electronic copy of one the presentations, just download their Materials Request Form found on the main Training Presentations page under "related files"complete the form, and email it to NEEPethics yahoo.
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